Category: Home

L-carnitine and brain function

L-carnitine and brain function

Multivitamin for energy L-carnitine and brain function a moderate functoon injury, with a small focal lesion. Interaction of BDNF cunction cytokines in executive andd in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Positive neuron density was presented as the percentage of positively stained neurons brown among total number of cells counterstained by hematoxylin blue. Fasting blood was collected by the research nurse at a.

It helps andd body Virtual fitness challenges energy, maintain healthy brwin function, and gunction the heart healthy. ALCAR is usually used for cognitive function and fjnction the cunction of chronic L-carnltine syndrome.

It has Sport Performance Supplement been shown to improve athletic performance and reduce muscle L-carnitine and brain function.

Acetyl-L-carnitine can help qnd these Teeth whitening solutions because it helps the body produce L-carnitine and brain function more efficiently. In addition, it can help braain who are addicted Essential vitamin supplement drugs or Anr by helping ad detoxify their bodies.

The L-carnktine of Acetyl-L-Carnitine are plentiful brqin this anti-viral nasal spray will explore some of them in greater detail.

Acetyl L-carnitine is one L-acrnitine the most researched brain nutrients which braun been shown L-carhitine quickly enhance mental focus and energy. The acetyl functon allows it Adaptogen stress management cross the blood brain barrier and reach our Injury prevention programs and Periodized eating for busy professionals, where it L-canritine improve our mood, functiin and memory.

Its Fasting and cardiovascular health is similar to neurotransmitter acetylcholine and therefore acetyl L-carnitine can stimulate acetylcholine receptors in the brain.

Acetylcholine is required for mental function. It helps our mitochondria, which are the powerhouses of brrain our cells, burn fat and create more energy.

Research have shown that following long-term use of Qnd supplements, many people reported a positive fnction on their memory recall and cognitive function which in turn, Periodized eating for busy professionals their focus and subsequently their performance.

Insulin resistance and insulin resistance prevention is a mental disorder that affects the way znd individual bbrain and feels.

Depression can be Closed-loop glucose control by many factors such as genetics, life L-carntine, brain chemistry or substance abuse.

ALCAR has been proven to have antidepressant effects in multiple studies. It has also been shown to improve mood, L-carnitine and brain function, reduce anxiety, increase energy, and reduce fatigue in people with depression.

In the studies Acetyl L-carnitine demonstrated similar effectiveness compared to antidepressants in decreasing depressive symptoms.

Attention and memory. Mental agility and focus reaction time. Speech and behavior. While there are many benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine, one of the most important ones is its ability to lower inflammation. ALCAR also helps to improve the function of mitochondria, which are the powerhouses of cells which in turn, helps to reduce inflammation and improve energy levels.

ALCAR is found in the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondria are the power plants of cells and produce energy for the cells to function. Mitochondria are constantly producing energy, but as we age they may not be as efficient as they used to be.

ALCAR is responsible for transporting long-chain fatty acids to the mitochondria. There, fatty acids undergo oxidation or combustion for energy production.

Nerves are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. Certain drugs and conditions such as diabetes can cause nerve damage neuropathywhich manifests with pain, tingling, or numbness in the legs and arms.

Acetyl-L-carnitine seems to be an effective option for diabetic neuropathy. According to the studies, ALCAR has the ability to shield the nerves against toxic glucose levels and reduce pain in people with diabetes.

Acetyl L-Carnitine has been linked to having great assistive benefits in weight loss. With higher levels of ALCAR our body becomes more efficient at burning fat.

Not only does this decrease the amount of fat that the body stores, but it also helps reduce visceral belly fat, the kind that surrounds our vital organs and potentially leads to fatty liver disease and other serious health conditions.

These effects will only be seen if Acetyl-L-Carnitine is taken in collaboration with a healthy, balanced diet and a good workout routine — so it's not a quick fix! Acetyl L-Carnitine has also been linked to the sped-up recovery of muscle tissue.

Acetyl-L-carnitine helps reduce the buildup of lactic acid in the muscles. Muscle lactate buildup is responsible for pain and muscle fatigue after an intense workout.

ALCAR may help reduce cravings in people suffering from alcoholism. It may reduce cravings and improve symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.

ALCAR can significantly decrease alcohol consumption and reduce the onset of tremors during alcohol withdrawal. Animal products like meat, fish, poultry and milk are the best sources of ALCAR.

In general, the redder the meat, the higher its carnitine content. Dairy products also contain carnitine. Vegans get considerably less since they avoid animal-derived foods.

If you are vegan, having digestive issues, or interested in burning more fat, increasing your energy, and enhancing your mental clarity, give us a call at Rejuvii offers Acetyl-L-Carnitine intravenously IV as a part of our Mind Sharpener drip and as a separate Intramuscular IM injection.

Learn more about us hereand give us a call. ALCAR acetyllcarnitine brain fog Alzheimers memory musclerecovery nervedamage. Detox Diaries- Laughing Our Toxins Away with IV Vitamin Therapy!

From Sneezes to Sizzle - Power Up Your Immunity with IV Vitamins. Reclaim Your Zen- Post-Holiday Health and Stress Relief Through IV Vitamins. top of page. Rejuvii Mar 5, 4 min read. Recent Posts See All. Post not marked as liked.

bottom of page.

: L-carnitine and brain function

L-Carnitine Benefits, Uses, Dosage, Foods, Side Effects - Dr. Axe

Dive into Relaxation. Download the Natural Grocers App {N}power Only Deals Meal Deals Sign Up for {N}power Current Deals Browse the Health Hotline Sale Browse Sale Items in Product Finder. Browse Deals. SEE ALL THE DEALS. BROWSE SALES FLYER. Search All Recipes Browse Recipes: Appetizers Desserts Healthy Snacks Main Courses Side Dishes Soups Beverages.

SEE ALL THE RECIPES. SEE THE RECIPE. Browse by Event Type: Nutrition Classes Recipe Demonstrations Virtual Guest Presenter Nutrition Education Classes Search All Events Join our Guest Presenter Program.

Get The Details. LEARN HOW TO DONATE. Nutritional Health Coaches Search Resource Library Browse Video Library Read the good4u Health Hotline Magazine Foundational Five Supplements Natural Grocers Supplement Guide.

Book Now. DISCOVER THE BENEFITS. Breadcrumb Nutrition Center good4u Health Hotline Magazine Boost Your Brain Power with Acetyl-L-Carnitine! References Available Upon Request. Read more articles like this in our resource library! Browse library. For the Love of Organics: Systemic Pesticides. Events near me Feb.

See Details. Wichita - Maize. Meet your Nutritional Health Coach: Sara Keraly, BS. Denver - Colorado And Evans.

Analysis of astrocytes was undertaken by measuring the staining intensity mean grey scale value of GFAP in one low power field of view for each brain region near the center of the lesion after normalising against the background for each section using the internal features of the software.

Cortex, hippocampus and thalamus were accessed. For all the staining, the sections were hydrated gradually from xylene followed by changes of graded ethanol to distilled water. For active caspase-3 staining, the tissues were incubated with active caspase-3 antibody , Cell Signalling Technology, USA dilution using EnVision TM FLEX antibody diluent Dako, Denmark at room temperature for one hour.

Negative controls were incubated with only the antibody diluent. The sections were then incubated with labelled polymer-HRP Anti-rabbit Dako, Denmark for one hour and then visualized using DAB Dako, Denmark.

Sections were subsequently counterstained with hematoxylin and coverslipped. ApopTag® Peroxidase kit S, Merck Millipore, VIC, Australia was used for TUNEL staining. Negative controls were incubated with water instead of Tdt.

For both active caspase-3 and TUNEL, the number of positive stained neurons was manually counted in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus.

Imaging was conducted using NanoZoomer Slide Scanner Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan with a 20X objective. Positive neuron density was presented as the percentage of positively stained neurons brown among total number of cells counterstained by hematoxylin blue.

Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of frozen brain sections were acquired using Leica SP2 confocal laser scanning microscope Leica, Wetzlar, Germany. Three images were collected from each cortex and averaged before the analysis was quantified using ImageJ.

All imaging parameters including laser intensities, Photomultiplier tubes voltage and pinholes were kept constant during imaging. Total mRNA was extracted from brain tissues using TriZol reagent Life Technologies, CA, USA. M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase, RNase H, Point Mutant Kit Promega, WI, USA was used to generate first-strand cDNA using purified total RNA The probes of the iNOS were labelled with FAM ® dye and those for housekeeping 18s rRNA were labelled with VIC ® dye.

Gene expression was standardized to 18s RNA. The average expression of the control group was assigned as the calibrator against which all other samples are expressed as fold difference.

Brain tissue was homogenised in cell lysis buffer for whole protein and mitochondrial protein extraction as previously described 23 , Membranes were then blocked with non-fat milk powder and incubated with primary antibodies against MnSOD and TOM20 , Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Texas, USA ; Mitoprofile Total® OXPHOS complex Rodent WB cocktail antibody , Abcam ; DRP-1 , Novus Biologicals, CO, USA , OPA1—1 , Novus Biologicals, CO, USA for overnight and then goat anti-rabbit or rabbit anti-mouse IgG horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies Santa Cruz Biotechnology, for MnSOD, TOM20 as we have previously published 34 , Protein expression was detected by SuperSignal West Pico Chemiluminescent substrate Thermo Fisher, MA, USA by exposure of the membrane in FujiFlim Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan.

Protein band density was determined with Image J software NIH, MD, USA. The difference between the groups was analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Turkey post hoc test Statistica 9, Statsoft, USA. At hour post-surgery, as expected the ratio in the TBI-only rats was doubled compared with the Sham group albeit without statistical significance Fig.

From 1 week onward, there was no difference among the four groups. Data was analysed by One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests.

TBI: Traumatic brain injury; TBI-LC: Traumatic brain injury with L-Carnitine treatment; TBI-E: Traumatic brain injury with Exendin-4 treatment. The percentage of stepping errors was much less in two treatment groups compared to the TBI group, although not statistically significant Fig.

Both treatments had similar effects to improve left forepaw locomotion. The motor deficit seems to be recovered at 1 week. There was no difference on the percentage of time spent on the open arm at any time point Fig. However, the time was doubled in all four groups at 6 weeks, which may be due to repeated exposure which made the rats less anxious on the open arm.

Rats in the TBI-LC group showed similar performance as the TBI rats, while rats in the TBI-E group behave similarly as the Sham rats although without statistical significance Fig.

The performance was similar among all groups at 1 week Fig. The contusive injury was located at the right dorsal surface of the brain Fig. There were no distinct signs of injury at the dorsal surface of the injured brains treated with L-Carnitine or Exendin-4 at both time points Fig.

In b , signs of injury included tissue disruption, haemorrhage arrowheads and tissue loss dotted line presented as a cavity TBI at 6 week. The levels of iNOS in the two treatment groups were similar to Sham group Fig. At 6 weeks, there was no difference in iNOS nor MnSOD levels among the groups Fig.

Whole gel images in Supplementary Fig. Mitochondrial density was unaffected by either the traumatic injury itself, or by the treatment with anti-oxidant drugs, however mitochondrial ROS increased after injury and were reduced after treatment with both L Carnitine and with Exendin At 6 weeks, although OXPHOS complex I was halved in TBI rats and complex II was halved in both treatment groups, they did not reach statistical significance Fig.

There is a trend of L-Carnitine to normalise complex V level in rats with TBI Fig. TUNEL staining showed the level of DNA damage. L Carnitine did not affect DNA damage in any of the area.

Apoptosis, reflected by active caspase-3 staining remains unaffected by either traumatic injury itself, or by the treatment Fig. TUNEL positive closed arrow and TUNEL negative open arrow. Active caspase-3 staining in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus a—d.

Caspase-3 positive closed arrow and TUNEL negative open arrow. The available medications to ameliorate tissue damage and any neuropsychiatric consequence following mild TBI only aim to temporarily alleviate the symptoms In this study, we showed that two existing medications, L-carnitine and Exendin-4, administered immediately after injury significantly ameliorated tissue damage and improved the slight sensorimotor functional deficits seen in rats with moderate TBI.

The mechanism seems to lie in alleviated oxidative stress. However, neither of them showed significant impact on mitochondrial functional and integrity markers measured in this study.

Even for moderate TBI, such as the cortical contusion used in this study, tissue damage and cell loss are inevitable. As neurons do not regenerate spontaneously, the lesion underwent liquefactive necrosis and was transformed into a liquid viscous mass with clear fluid in the cortex, as shown in rats at 6 weeks post injury in this study.

Neural loss is commonly linked to sensorimotor deficits and cognitive impairment in both humans and animal models, especially immediately after the injury occurs However, such sensorimotor deficits recovered rapidly, which may be due to the compensation of the motor and sensory cortex on the contralateral side.

Indeed, memory loss and reduced information processing speed due to TBI are well documented in the literature 38 , Although tissue loss was significant at 6 weeks, cognitive impairment was fully recovered at this time point.

A previous study has found that TBI-induced memory impairment can be persistent, associated with unemployment and difficulties in performing financial management tasks, which significantly affecting employability and life quality Such observation in humans can be due to continuous neural degeneration, which exacerbate cognitive decline in the long term, whereas the timeline of the current study is too short to observe such changes Anxiety is a common psychological disorder after a TBI especially in those with multiple TBI However, human studies only focused on patients with clinically diagnosed TBI, whereas the majority of patients with mild TBI do not necessarily obtain medical attention due to mild nature of the symptoms.

Thus, we did not observe any change in anxiety like behaviour in rats with TBI, perhaps because the injury was too mild to cause a measurable change.

Astrocytes are most abundant and important supporting cells in the CNS, critical to maintain the normal functions of the neurons Within hours post-injury, astrocytes become reactive to form astrocytic scar called astrogliosis in response to the mechanical destruction of neural cells for tissue repair The astrocytic scar acts as a neuroprotective boundary restricting inflammation and limiting lesion expansion 43 , Astrocytes are also important for angiogenesis after the injury to restore blood supply to the injured area However, this scar also creates a physical and chemical barrier that prevents neural and axonal regeneration Microglia are the resident macrophages in the CNS whose primarily function is to protect the CNS by engulfing myelin debris and invading micro-organism, known as phagocytosis.

At the early stage, the activated microglia are believed to cause neuronal and glial toxicity, as well as neutrophil infiltration by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines At the later stage, microglia are suggested to help with neuronal survival by secreting growth factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and anti-inflammatory cytokines 47 , Gliosis, as shown by increased GFAP staining intensity, was increased at all anatomical locations in all TBI groups compared to the sham non-injured rats as expected in response to this type of traumatic injury for tissue repair.

Microglia are thought to have an important role as immune modulators for CNS tissue repair 47 , 48 , 49 and the elevated levels of activated microglia may have a beneficial effect on the tissue at these later time points through the release of growth factors or anti-inflammatory cytokines.

After acute injury, there is an increase in energy demand. However, such response also produces more by-product reactive oxygen species increasing oxidative stress as shown in this study.

The endogenous antioxidants would counteract such increases in ROS; however during TBI, antioxidants such as MnSOD can become inactivated or overwhelmed with the occurrence of ROS overproduction Additionally, trauma can disrupt the fine compartments of a cell resulting in selective antioxidants adopting a pro-oxidative role serving to promote the synthesis of oxidative free radicals This imposes more pressure on already vulnerable mitochondria, which can be directly damaged by oxidative stress.

Indeed, oxidative stress plays a major role in TBI-induced tissue damage and energy failure due to its direct effect on the ATP synthesis site in the mitochondria 52 , As such, at 6 weeks, there was some reduction in OXPHOS complexes I and V levels although not statistically significant.

This was associated with increased ROS levels suggesting mitochondrial damage. It is worth noting that western blotting can quantify the protein level of each complex which does not reflect mitochondrial activity.

The by-product ROS is only suggestive of mitochondrial function. The damaged mitochondria would activate the mitophagy process to repair fusion and eliminate fission damaged mitochondrial fragment which is protective to neural injury 54 , Neither mitophagy fusion and fission markers in this study were significantly changed by brain injury.

This may be due to the acute time point. Nevertheless, oxidative stress can cause the cell membranes to break down inactivating critical membrane pumps, altering gene regulation, and impairing signal transduction, consequently hindering the normal function of the cells and rendering them susceptible to cell death It is reflected by TUNEL staining that there was an increase in DNA damage in cortex, hippocampus and thalamus.

A study from Clark et al. showed that apoptosis initiated one to three days after TBI In that study, TBI insulted a greater injury as indicated by 2. Clinically, mild TBI results in a broad spectrum of injuries from minimal neurometabolic changes with rapid recovery to irreversible structural damage resulting in persistent functional deficits The current management strategies in place exclusively cater to one end of this range neglecting the more severe cases of mild TBI.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common factor amongst numerous biochemical cascades initiated by TBI; linking the primary cellular changes to the eventual neuronal damage and possible cell death 61 , This is particularly true for neuronal cells of the brain given their high energy demands With such an extensive and crucial action in the brain, it is not surprising mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as a significant influence in the cell death of numerous neurological disorders 64 , 65 , 66 , Therefore, in this study, we have tested two antioxidants that have been shown to be protective in different organs against oxidative-stress induced damage.

L-Carnitine assists in the transportation of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrion for energy synthesis 68 , 69 , L-Carnitine has a number of therapeutic applications, such as that in type 2 diabetes 71 , 72 , myocardial infarction 73 , 74 , and kidney disease When TBI happens, the limited glucose storage is depleted rapidly and the brain is forced to utilise amino acids as an energy substrate as ATP is essential for the maintenance of general brain function L-Carnitine has been found to improve mitochondrial function in conditions of oxidative stress by detoxifying free-radicals and enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidants This may directly contribute to the neuroprotective effect, where ameliorated tissue injury and neurological functional deficit were found in TBI rats treated with L-Carnitine immediately after the injury.

Exendin-4 is an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, which is currently prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity 78 , However, several studies have also found its neuroprotective abilities in various models of neurological disorders 21 , 22 , 80 including a mouse model of blast-TBI 81 , Whilst the beneficial impact of Exendin-4 on mitochondria was suggested in a study on retinal ganglion cells injury, Exendin-4 only induced a non-significant increase in TOM20 and fusion marker Opal-1 at 6 weeks However, we need to acknowledge that pinpointing the components of mitochondrial function that are impaired is extremely difficult.

The negative finding in mitochondrial markers does not exclude its positive impact on mitochondrial integrity and function to support rapid repair after the injury. In summary, the outcome of both treatment options in this study, L-Carnitine and Exendin-4, supports their strong potential to be repurposed in reducing brain tissue damage and functional decline due to mild TBI in humans.

A future long-term study for a minimum of 6 months is required to investigate whether such treatments can prevent long-term posttraumatic neurodegeneration. Johnstone, V. et al. Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Long-Term Recovery of Functional Responsiveness in Sensory Cortex but Persisting Structural Changes and Sensorimotor, Cognitive, and Emotional Deficits.

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Chen, H. Moderate traumatic brain injury is linked to acute behaviour deficits and long term mitochondrial alterations. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Cassidy, J. Incidence, risk factors and prevention of mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Journal of rehabilitation medicine , 28—60 Murray, C. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Hilton, G. Roscovitine reduces neuronal loss, glial activation and neurological deficits after brain trauma.

Article CAS Google Scholar. Gultekin, R. Pharmacological interventions in traumatic brain injury: Can we rely on systematic reviews for evidence? Mustafa, A. Pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury.

Neurosciences Riyadh 18 , — Google Scholar. Hiebert, J. Traumatic Brain Injury and Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Zhou, Y. Implications of astrocytes in neurovascular coupling.

Article Google Scholar. Gadoth, N. In Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage in Neurology ed Friedman, J. Humana Press, Hansford, R. Dependence of H2O2 formation by rat heart mitochondria on substrate availability and donor age. Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 29 , 89—95 Chance, B.

Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiological reviews 59 , — Turrens, J. Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species. The Journal of physiology , — Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Trushina, E. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases.

Brown, G. Inflammatory neurodegeneration and mechanisms of microglial killing of neurons. Molecular neurobiology 41 , — Cooney, S. Cellular and temporal expression of NADPH oxidase NOX isotypes after brain injury.

Binienda, Z. Neuroprotective role of L-carnitine in the 3-nitropropionic acid induced neurotoxicity. Toxicology letters , 67—73 Jalal, F. Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces the infarct size and striatal glutamate outflow following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

x Article PubMed ADS CAS Google Scholar. Scafidi, S. Neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine after traumatic injury to the immature rat brain. Darsalia, V. Exendin-4 reduces ischemic brain injury in normal and aged type 2 diabetic mice and promotes microglial M2 polarization. Eakin, K. Exendin-4 ameliorates traumatic brain injury-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

PloS one 8 , e Article PubMed PubMed Central ADS CAS Google Scholar. Teramoto, S. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, provides neuroprotection in mice transient focal cerebral ischemia. Nguyen, L. l-Carnitine reverses maternal cigarette smoke exposure-induced renal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse offspring.

Exendin-4 is effective against metabolic disorders induced by intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition in rodents. Antunes, M. The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications. Metz, G. The ladder rung walking task: a scoring system and its practical application.

Fagoe, N. Evaluation of Five Tests for Sensitivity to Functional Deficits following Cervical or Thoracic Dorsal Column Transection in the Rat. Liguz-Lecznar, M.

Functional assessment of sensory functions after photothrombotic stroke in the barrel field of mice. Bouet, V. The adhesive removal test: a sensitive method to assess sensorimotor deficits in mice. html Walf, A. The use of the elevated plus maze as an assay of anxiety-related behavior in rodents.

Protocols 2 , — Chan, Y. Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Worsens Neurological Outcomes in Adolescent Offspring with Hypoxic-IschemicInjury. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Maternal obesity impairs brain glucose metabolism and neural response to hyperglycemia in male rat offspring. Stangenberg, S. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial perturbations and fetal programming of renal disease induced by maternal smoking.

Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring. Maternal L-Carnitine supplementation improves brain health in offspring from cigarette smoke exposed mothers.

Arciniegas, D. Mild traumatic brain injury: a neuropsychiatric approach to diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 1 , — PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Yan, H. In Brain Neurotrauma: Molecular, Neuropsychological, and Rehabilitation Aspects. ed Kobeissy, F.

Madigan, N. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation 15 , — Johansson, B. Mental fatigue and impaired information processing after mild and moderate traumatic brain injury.

Brain injury 23 , — DeKosky, S. Acute and chronic traumatic encephalopathies: pathogenesis and biomarkers. Osborn, A. Anxiety and comorbid depression following traumatic brain injury in a community-based sample of young, middle-aged and older adults.

Pekny, M. Astrocyte reactivity and reactive astrogliosis: costs and benefits. Faulkner, J. Reactive astrocytes protect tissue and preserve function after spinal cord injury.

The Journal of Neuroscience 24 , — Article PubMed CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar. Sofroniew, M. Astrocytes: biology and pathology. Acta Nuropathologica , 7—35 Gordon, G. Astrocyte control of the cerebrovasculature. Yang, L. Early expression and cellular localization of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in human traumatic spinal cord injury.

Spine 29 , — Hashimoto, M. Journal of neuroscience research 79 , — Dougherty, K. Neurobiology of Disease 7 , — Stirling, D. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated alternative activation of microglia is protective after spinal cord injury. Brain , awt Ansari, M. Oxidative stress and modification of synaptic proteins in hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

Bayır, H. Assessment of antioxidant reserve and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res 51 , — Nakka, V.

Crosstalk Between Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Autophagy: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Acute CNS Injuries. Divakaruni, A. Current Protocols in Toxicology 60 , txs60 Amadoro, G. Morphological and bioenergetic demands underlying the mitophagy in post-mitotic neurons: the pink-parkin pathway.

Zhang, X. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced autophagy protects against neuronal injury by mitochondrial clearance. Bhattacharyya, A. Oxidative stress: an essential factor in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal mucosal diseases. Physiological reviews 94 , — Borges, H.

DNA damage-induced cell death: lessons from the central nervous system. Keller, J. Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase prevents neural apoptosis and reduces ischemic brain injury: suppression of peroxynitrite production, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction.

J Neurosci 18 , — Clark, R. Caspase-3 mediated neuronal death after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurochem 74 , —

Top bar navigation

Added to. Unable to add item to List. Please try again. Sorry, there was a problem. There was an error retrieving your Wish Lists. List unavailable. Our Point of View on Double Wood Supplements WTI We Tried It! Image Unavailable Image not available for Color:.

VIDEOS ° VIEW IMAGES. Acetyl L-Carnitine 1,mg Per Serving, Capsules ALCAR for Brain Function Support, Memory, Attention, and Stamina Acetyl L Carnitine That is Manufactured and Tested in The USA by Double Wood. Visit the Double Wood Supplements Store. Search this page.

Climate Pledge Friendly. Purchase options and add-ons. Brand Double Wood Supplements Flavor Unflavored Unit Count Count Item Form Capsule Item Weight 0.

About this item Supercharge your Mitochondria; ALCAR promotes mitochondrial function which helps support cognitive function and exercise endurance Support Cognitive Function; L Carnitine is able to pass through the blood brain barrier to support memory, learning, and overall cognitive function Gain an Edge in the Gym; By supporting mitochondrial function in your muscles ALCAR promotes energy production and can support workout endurance Manufactured and Tested in the USA; DoubleWood Supplement's Acetyl L Carnitine pills are manufactured and tested for microbes and heavy metals right here in the USA Become your Best Self; Give your Mitochondria the fuel it needs for your brain and body to operate at its absolute best.

Report an issue with this product or seller. Frequently bought together. This item: Acetyl L-Carnitine 1,mg Per Serving, Capsules ALCAR for Brain Function Support, Memory, Attention, and Stamina Acetyl L Carnitine That is Manufactured and Tested in The USA by Double Wood.

Get it as soon as Monday, Feb Magnesium L Threonate Capsules Magtein — High Absorption Supplement — Bioavailable Form for Sleep and Cognitive Function Support — 2, mg — Capsules. Alpha GPC Choline mg Capsules - Brain Support Supplement for Focus, Memory, Motivation, Energy by Double Wood.

Total price:. To see our price, add these items to your cart. Try again! Added to Cart. Add all 3 to Cart. Choose items to buy together. Similar items that may ship from close to you. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1.

Previous page. Nutricost Acetyl L-Carnitine mg, Capsules - Non-GMO and Gluten Free. Superior Labs Acetyl L-Carnitine mg caps Maximum Absorption Pure Vegetable Capsules Zero Synthetic Additives Superior Absorption.

Amazon's Choice. Carlyle Acetyl L-Carnitine HCL Capsules mg Count Non-GMO and Gluten Free Supplement. Next page. From the brand. Immune Support Visit the Store. Sleep Support Visit the Store. Stress Less Visit the Store.

Product Certification 1. Compact by Design Certified by Amazon products remove excess air and water, which reduces the carbon footprint of shipping and packaging. Product Description. Focus on sustainability. Here are a few of the many ways products can qualify:.

Compare with similar items This Item. Life Extension N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine NAC , immune, respiratory, liver health, NAC mg, potent antioxidant support, free-radicals, easy to absorb, 60 capsules.

THORNE Acetyl-L-Carnitine - mg - Supports Brain Function and Healthy Nerve Sensations in The Hands and Feet - Gluten-Free, Soy-Free, Dairy-Free - 60 Capsules.

Highland Health Foods. Energy Management. Brain Health Support. Cellular Energy Production. Take one 1 capsule one to three times daily, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner.

Brief content visible, double tap to read full content. Full content visible, double tap to read brief content. Help others learn more about this product by uploading a video!

Important information Safety Information Please consult your physician before use. Ingredients Ingredients: ALCAR mg, Other ingredients: Gelatin capsule , cellulose, silicon dioxide. Directions As a supplement take capsules per day on an empty stomach.

Legal Disclaimer Statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition.

Looking for specific info? Customer reviews. How customer reviews and ratings work Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them.

Learn more how customers reviews work on Amazon. Customers say. Quality Effect on weight Clarity Value Focus Stamina Effect on neuropathy Memory quality. Images in this review.

Reviews with images. See all photos. All photos. Best product. Love taking these in the the morning with my other vitamins. I have seen a difference with my body and how it has helped my stomach flatten out. Will definitely be recommending this brand and buying again. More Hide. Thank you for your feedback.

Sorry, there was an error. Sorry we couldn't load the review. Sort reviews by Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States.

There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. My experience with ALCAR was very good overall.

I started with mg when I tried it out and moved up to the max throughout the day. It was very effective at clearing up the brain and providing energy for the first 3 weeks or so and then I stopped noticing the motivation improvement, but it still helped some in that area and with brain fog.

Brain fog has been a huge problem for me for years, so any relief is appreciated. Even toward the end, it continued to help with coming down off of Adderall what caught my attention to try it initially during my hours of research.

As I write this, I haven't taken it in a couple weeks and I can really notice a big difference in how well it helped me as the hodgepodge of daily stimulants wore off, even though the UP feeling faded a little as I took it every day throughout the month. If you are using a lot of stimulants, I would highly recommend this!

Also, please note the warning about watching the amount you take or avoiding it outright if you have hypothyroidism. I think I'll just cut back a little on the quantity, as mine is not severe.

FYI, L-carnitine bonded to the acetyl group is the only way to go. The plain l-carnitine in energy drinks is basically worthless and NALCAR is probably just another marketing gimmick.

Beware of the term higher bioavailability in the world of supplements, this doesn't equate to effectiveness regarding what area of the body especially the brain you want it to go to. It's often a money-making scheme, as it equates to much higher prices for certain supplements.

Acetyl L Carnitine has so many benefits. This is an energy booster for me before the gym and has some cognitive benefits as a nootropic kinda as well. This is used for a variety of mental disorders including Alzheimer's disease, age-related memory loss and depression.

This also helps burn fat during workouts, prevent muscle failure, fatigue, and prevents me from feeling sluggish when I'm intermittent fasting or dieting. Acetyl L Carnitine is a "no compromise" in my pre-workout stack as aI was thrilled when Doublewood announced they would be carrying it.

I used to buy the powder form but love the quality and convenience in a pill form. Always quality from Doublewood as my medicine cabinet is filled with their products! Thank you DW! Great taste , good value buti notice the tabs are bursting up , i dont know why.

please help. I started using this product about three months ago. I do a number of different jobs and I am finding it definitely helps with my memory on the job. I am 65 and choosing not to slow down so I appreciate the positive effects. I have had problems with feeling foggy headed at times too and it appears to help alleviate it.

I feel I have had very positive results with this supplement. I also have an elderly Shit-zu dog with an immune disorder that causes her to sleep all the time. I have recently put her on a diet that helped her but she would still sleep most the day.

I started sprinkling a little L-Carnitine on her food and she sleeps much less and even acts playful again. It is so good to have her back and seeing her happy and feeling good again.

I got this supplement because I've been having trouble with my memory, forgetting things easily, sentences slipping my mind, ideas flying away. After about two weeks on this supplement, my memory is so sharp, I hardly forget anything, my verbal recall is amazing, and I feel like its helping me to get my life back!

I have not tried other ALCAR products but I have tried other products from Double Wood and I was happy with them my family really likes the their Theacrine. This product is no exception. I have read other brands reviews and read they cause people to get jitters or they claim nothing happened.

With this product I can say that it is a slight clarity that is much needed for me. It isn't going to turn an average person into Einstein, but it does offer a bit of additional focus and as I get older every bit is welcome. I have tried some of these nootropic wonder pills and not much happened and they cost a fortune.

These are inexpensive and added to my other pills I eat a Keto diet so I take some additional nutritional supplements such as Iodine and Magnesium they do make a difference. Again, this is subtle for me but well worth the money as my brain is getting foggy now that I reached middle age.

My conclusion is that if you feel a little brain fog but you get enough sleep and eat well, give these a try. If you are looking for a little clarity, give these a try.

Take them for a couple of weeks though. You won't notice a difference in a day. I do know that it is causing a little constipation, so I am not taking it every single day.

I am writing to you to let you know I am your 1 fan of this supplement Acetyl L-Carnitine. I bought it to try for my husband, but since it said endurance and stamina I thought I would try it. I wasn't really paying much attention until about 10 months later I noticed that I had lost about 20 some pounds.

People started noticing and asking me what I was doing differently. It made me stop to think and all I could think of was the Acetyl L-Carnitine. Then as I thought about it, I was going all day and not getting tired.

I am a 65 year old woman with a full time very demanding job still. I was not tired when I got home from work therefore I was not sitting down and eating, I was doing more and enjoying doing things that I always enjoyed. Carnitine can inhibit thyroid hormone activity, so those seeking treatment for hypothyroidism should not take any form of carnitine supplement [12].

In addition, some research suggests that certain gut bacteria can convert carnitine to a substance called trimethylamine-N-oxide TMAO , which may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, this not well understood and needs more research [13].

NOTE: This is not a comprehensive safety evaluation or complete list of potentially harmful drug interactions. It is important to discuss safety issues with your physician before taking any new supplement or medication. ALCAR is a common, over-the-counter supplement.

There are many natural sources of carnitine, such as red meat, fish, poultry, and some dairy products, but obtaining the doses used in previous clinical trials requires taking a dietary supplement. For more information, visit the NIH's health information fact sheet. More information on carnitine supplementation can be found at Drugs.

Potential Benefit. APOE4 Carriers: Little evidence exists on how carnitine treatment affects APOE4 positive or negative patients.

For Dementia Patients Despite some promise from early clinical trials, a meta-analysis of clinical trials concluded that ALCAR supplements are unlikely to provide a clinically meaningful benefit on the cognitive, behavioral, or functional abilities of Alzheimer's patients [1].

Hudson S, Tabet N Acetyl-L-carnitine for dementia. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews , CD Jones LL, McDonald DA, Borum PR Acylcarnitines: role in brain. Progress in lipid research 49, Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Gargante MP et al. The American journal of clinical nutrition 86, Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Cristaldi E et al.

Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 46, Lodeiro M, Ibanez C, Cifuentes A et al. Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD 41, Cristofano A, Sapere N, La Marca G et al.

PloS one 11, e Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, Wehr CM et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, Barnes CA, Markowska AL, Ingram DK et al.

About this item

In one study published in the Asian Journal of Sports Medicine , 21 male athletes were given either L-carnitine or a placebo daily for two weeks prior to an athletic test.

Compared to the control group, those who took L-carnitine were found to have lower levels of certain markers that indicate muscle damage. Updated research in relayed the following information:.

The presented studies analyzed the role of L-carnitine supplementation in muscle bioenergetics and its antioxidant potential in physically active individuals. In this context, L-carnitine supplementation could be an ergogenic aid, helping in muscle damage and recovery, particularly in conditions of L-carnitine deficiency.

However, further studies are needed to conclusively clarify the mechanisms underlying these protective effects. Besides increasing weight loss, this amino acid also helps kick up fat-burning as well.

In one study conducted in Germany, overweight participants received a regular diet, either with or without the addition of L-carnitine.

After 10 days, L-carnitine was found to significantly increase the breakdown of fat. Another study published in the Journal of Physiology showed that increasing the amount of carnitine in the muscles helped prevent fat gain by increasing fat burning and energy expenditure during physical activity.

In fact, promising research has found that it may positively impact brain function and cognition. One study conducted by the University of Catania in Italy and published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at the effects of daily L-carnitine supplementation on mental and physical fatigue in elderly participants over years old.

Not only was it found to reduce total fat mass and increase muscle mass, but it also helped decrease fatigue and improve cognitive function. A update did caution , however:.

Based on the currently available evidences, the role of ALC [acetyl-L-carnitine] in AD and other cognitive disorders is still under debate. Future multicenter double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in a large and homogeneous sample of patients should focus on higher doses and more prolonged treatment.

Longitudinal studies with multidimensional assessments and a wide range of outcome measures are also needed before a systematic application of ALC in clinical practice. Some promising research has shown that carnitine supplementation could aid in maintaining normal blood sugar levels and fighting insulin resistance.

Insulin is the hormone responsible for transporting sugar from the bloodstream to the cells, where it can be used as fuel. Too much insulin can lead to insulin resistance, decreasing its effectiveness and resulting in high blood sugar. A study out of Rome published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition showed that infusing people who had diabetes with L-carnitine improved insulin sensitivity and increased the uptake of sugar from the bloodstream.

When used as directed, carnitine can be safe and effective with minimal risk of side effects. Common L-carnitine side effects that may occur for some include stomach pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. L-carnitine may increase the risk of seizures in those with epilepsy.

Additionally, carnitine may worsen symptoms of hypothyroidism. If you have an underactive thyroid, you should consult with your doctor before taking this amino acid. If you experience any negative side effects, be sure to report to your doctor to determine if supplementation is right for you.

Finally, keep in mind that carnitine may enhance fat loss and weight loss for some people, but it should be used in combination with a healthy diet and active lifestyle to see the most results.

Animal products are the best natural sources of L-carnitine, with foods like grass-fed beef packing in the highest amount per serving. It can also be found in small amounts in some sources like vegetables and grains. Research also suggests that ALCAR can improve cognitive function and behavioral symptoms in patients with vascular dementia 7.

These studies suggest that ALCAR has a positive effect on cognitive decline and dementia , including Alzheimer's disease. Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR exhibits neuroprotective properties, shielding neurons from damage and degeneration.

It does this by reducing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation , both of which can lead to neuronal damage. Research shows that ALCAR has antioxidant properties, which means it can help neutralize harmful free radicals in the brain. In one study, researchers found that dietary supplementation with ALCAR protected the brain and reduced the decline in mitochondrial function associated with aging 8.

In another study, researchers found that ALCAR protected the brain and improved neurological outcomes following traumatic brain injury 9. Similar to its role in other cells, Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR helps in the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria of brain cells.

These fatty acids are then used to produce energy , which is vital for maintaining normal brain function. Since Acetyl-L-Carnitine is involved in mitochondrial function and energy production , it supports the creation of ATP , the body's primary energy currency.

A more efficient production of ATP translates to more available energy in the brain. In one study, researchers showed that ALCAR increased cellular respiration and ATP synthesis in neurons ALCAR is also known to enhance brain energy metabolism and can help maintain the energy needs of the brain during stressful conditions.

In one study, ALCAR was shown to improve brain energy metabolism during recovery from hypoxia-ischemia The acetyl part of Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR is used in the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine plays a critical role in many functions, including memory , learning , and attention. By donating its acetyl group to the production of acetylcholine, ALCAR supports cognitive function and learning processes. In one study, ALCAR increased choline acetyltransferase activity in certain areas of the brain.

Choline acetyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of acetylcholine In another study, ALCAR was found to restore the release of acetylcholine , which was decreased in aged rats.

This restoration was associated with improved learning and enhanced cognitive function ALCAR has also been found to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease , and this effect is believed to be due in part to its influence on acetylcholine production Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR increases and enhances the activity of nerve growth factor NGF in the brain.

NGF is a critical protein that helps in the growth, maintenance, and survival of nerve cells, including neurons. In one study, researchers found that ALCAR enhances the production of NGF in the nervous system Another study showed that long-term ALCAR administration increased NGF levels in the hippocampus Researchers have also reported that ALCAR administration to aged rats significantly increases NGF levels and reverses the age-associated loss of NGF receptors in the brain Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR has anti-inflammatory properties and can help reduce inflammation in the brain.

In one study, researchers found that ALCAR reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in a model of hypoxic brain injury Researchers have noted that ALCAR can reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases likely by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain Research papers have also highlighted the potential of ALCAR in modulating inflammation and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease Research suggests that Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR has a beneficial impact on mood disorders such as depression.

It has mood-enhancing and antidepressant effects likely due to its influence on neurotransmitters and brain energy metabolism. In one study, researchers found that ALCAR is a valid treatment for depression in the elderly, with similar efficacy to traditional antidepressants but fewer side effects Another study found that ALCAR supplementation could reduce both depression and fatigue in patients with chronic illness Researchers have also found that ALCAR levels are significantly decreased in individuals with major depressive disorder.

They suggested that ALCAR supplementation could have antidepressant properties, especially in those with treatment-resistant depression and high inflammation Some studies have suggested that Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR can help manage symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD , especially in those who have a genetic variation that limits the body's natural production of carnitine In one study, researchers found that ALCAR was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing attention problems and aggressive behavior in boys with ADHD Another study found that ALCAR can enhance the release of dopamine in the brain , which could potentially enhance attention and focus Research suggests that Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR has anti-anxiety and stress-reducing effects.

One study showed that ALCAR reduced anxiety-like behavior in rats by altering the function of the GABAergic system Researchers have also found that ALCAR prevents stress-induced changes in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus — a region of the brain important for stress response and emotion regulation Other studies have shown that ALCAR supplementation can reverse the behavioral changes caused by chronic stress Mitochondria are the "powerhouses" of our cells.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR supports the health and function of the mitochondria. This is particularly important in the brain, where energy demand is high.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is also linked to numerous diseases and health conditions. Research shows that ALCAR is actively transported across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain mitochondria , where it plays a key role in energy metabolism within the brain. In one study, researchers found that ALCAR improves mitochondrial efficiency and prevents age-related mitochondrial changes Supplementation with ALCAR also reduces the decline in mitochondrial function associated with aging, leading to increased energy production and improved cognitive function 8.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR can also benefit individuals struggling with addiction. Research suggests that ALCAR can assist in the recovery from alcohol addiction by reducing cravings and alleviating withdrawal symptoms.

In one study, researchers found that ALCAR supplementation reduced alcohol intake and relapse in alcohol-dependent rats. The authors suggested that ALCAR might modulate the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain , which is often disrupted in alcohol dependence Research also shows that ALCAR reduces self-administration of morphine and reduces withdrawal symptoms in opioid-dependent rats.

The authors speculated that ALCAR might influence opioid receptors or alter pain perception , which could be beneficial in managing opioid addiction Another study found that ALCAR reduces the self-administration and seeking of methamphetamine in rats.

The authors suggested that ALCAR might help in managing methamphetamine addiction by reducing drug-seeking behavior There is some evidence that Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR can help reduce feelings of physical and mental fatigue, making it useful for conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome CFS.

Research shows that Acetyl-L-Carnitine deficiency is common in people with CFS In one study, researchers gave ALCAR to CFS patients, and they found that it led to significant improvements in cognitive function, particularly in terms of attention and concentration.

Another study found that ALCAR significantly improved the physical and mental fatigue associated with CFS Research suggests that Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR can help alleviate symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain and fatigue.

It is believed that ALCAR helps by boosting energy productio n and reducing pain perception. In one study, researchers found that fibromyalgia patients who took ALCAR experienced significant improvements in pain and depression compared to those who took a placebo.

The study concluded that ALCAR may be a promising treatment for fibromyalgia, particularly for reducing pain and improving the overall mental health of patients Researchers have also examined the role of ALCAR in managing pain conditions, including fibromyalgia.

A meta-analysis found that ALCAR supplementation in humans significantly lowers depressive symptoms compared with placebo or no intervention, and does so with fewer adverse effects than established antidepressants, especially in older adults.

Further, several of the trials included in the review showed ALCAR to be as effective as prescription antidepressants in reducing depressive symptoms, with fewer side effects.

The average dose was 3 grams per day. Doses ranging from 1. With its ability to easily cross the blood-brain barrier and support healthy mitochondria and energy production in the brain, in addition to reducing oxidative damage and inflammation, ALCAR is proving to be a valuable neuroprotective supplement.

Skip to main navigation. Sustainability Environmental, Social, and Governance Report Organic Parks Projects Join the Ladybug Love Pledge Watch Meet Your Farmer Read Earth Watch Articles Related: About Natural Grocers Our Five Founding Principles The Natural Grocers Story.

Read The Report. Read The Article. SWEETEN UP YOUR DAY. Dive into Relaxation. Download the Natural Grocers App {N}power Only Deals Meal Deals Sign Up for {N}power Current Deals Browse the Health Hotline Sale Browse Sale Items in Product Finder.

Browse Deals. SEE ALL THE DEALS. BROWSE SALES FLYER. Search All Recipes Browse Recipes: Appetizers Desserts Healthy Snacks Main Courses Side Dishes Soups Beverages.

In the functioh against chronic Periodized eating for busy professionals, depression, funtion age-related cognitive decline, hrain supports brain function and Coenzyme Q and immune system support wellbeing. For anyone looking to Results-driven pre-workout the effects of Periodized eating for busy professionals L-darnitine the brain, combat depression, and enhance overall brain performance, including grain and memory, the supplement acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR should functoin at the Periodized eating for busy professionals of your list. Further, ailing, poor-functioning mitochondria put a large amount of oxidative stress on the body, which can accelerate the aging process and lead to chronic inflammation. Research has shown that ALCAR can improve cognitive function, particularly in people who are starting to experience age-related decline. In one study published in Molecular Psychiatry, researchers examined mice exposed to prolonged stress, finding structural changes in the amygdala, the part of the brain known to regulate emotions, including fear and anxiety. During the study, mice endured 21 days of periodic confinement in a small space and then scientists tested to see how their behavior changed. L-carnitine and brain function

Author: Kikree

3 thoughts on “L-carnitine and brain function

  1. Ich entschuldige mich, aber meiner Meinung nach sind Sie nicht recht. Geben Sie wir werden es besprechen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com