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Body composition assessment technique

Body composition assessment technique

Still, Digestive health tips is composjtion inexpensive and accessible, making it a popular method for compsoition composition assessment in research and clinical settings. The Bod Pod is the main ADP device currently used. May 18, Written By Grant Tinsley, Ph. Eur J Radiol.

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Body Composition Assessment Techniques (UPDATED VERSION IN DESCRIPTION) In the world of health Yoga for athletic performance fitness, body composition assessment Stress management techniques for healthy blood pressure are an Bdy Digestive health tips that helps composifion understand the makeup of our bodies. It refers assessent the proportion of fat, muscle, and other tissues in our bodies and can be a crucial factor in determining our overall health and fitness levels. While there are various methods for measuring body composition, not all are equally accurate or reliable. This article will explore the top body composition assessment techniques in fitness centers. Body composition is an essential component of health and fitness.

Body composition assessment technique -

Body composition can be measured up to a maximum of five compartments — atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue and whole body 1. In most cases, the more compartments that are measured, the less error there is in body composition estimates.

However, measuring more compartments requires multiple methods of body composition assessment to be used. It is more common the a basic two-compartment model is used to assess body composition in athletes.

Although these methods re more practical, estimates of FFM can vary largely between methods. There are a variety of reasons why you may have your body composition assessed as an athlete.

This includes:. To determine the effectiveness of an intervention. To track body composition goals. To assess injury risk. For example, low bone mineral density is linked to increase bone stress fracture risk.

To aid in setting body composition goals. To assess health risk could be due to being underweight or overweight. For the first two reasons you will need a method that provides reproducible results i.

is reliable. Even if it is not very accurate it is still possible to use this method to track changes. The other reasons require accurate absolute numbers and therefore the method must be reliable but also accurate. There a range of techniques that can be used to measure body composition which vary in their accuracy, reliability, cost etc.

Commonly used methods only provide an estimate of body composition because they are based on assumptions regarding the compartments measured. This is because the only truly accurate way to measure body composition is by dissection!

Below is a brief overview of the common methods used…. Two low energy x-rays are passed through the body which are absorbed differently by bone and tissues. DXA can measure regional body composition, sub-dividing the body into different components i.

arms, legs and trunk , as well as bone density. DXA relies on certain assumptions, and when these are violated, errors in measurements can occur. is followed as strictly as possible see reference 2 for details.

A small alternating electrical current is passed through the body, and the impedance resistance to this is measured. Muscle tissue contains a high water content which allows the electrical current to pass through quickly, however the electrical current experiences resistance when passing through fat tissue.

Single frequency BIA scales are typically used allowing only TBW to be measured, however if multiple frequency scales are used, this can be further differentiated into extracellular water and intracellular water. ISAK stands for the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry who train practitioners to perform skinfold measurements in a standardised way.

The skinfold technique measures a double fold of skin, which reflects the subcutaneous fat thickness at various sites across the body.

Skinfold thickness is measured in mm, and various population-specific equations have been created to attempt to convert these measures into body fat percentage. Skinfolds are best used as a monitoring tool over time, with the same person taking the measurements each time. The thickness of a skinfold also depends on hydration status.

So although this method is relatively easy there are also quite a few limitations. Air displacement plethysmography measures body composition through a person sitting within an enclosed chamber i.

Bodpod whereby body volume is indirectly measured through measuring the volume of air the body displaces within the chamber. In other words, the amount of air that you displace when stepping in the chamber is equivalent to your body volume.

Volume, in addition to body weight, can then be used to calculate body density, which then allows FM and FFM to be estimated. This technique involves being fully submerged in a tank of water and expelling all air in the lungs whilst underwater weight is measured.

Both bone and muscle have a greater density than water, whereas fat mass has a lower density than water. Therefore, someone with a larger amount of FFM will weigh more in water. Body density is calculated using underwater weight, body weight outside of the water, density of the water and residual volume of the lungs.

The residual volume in the lungs is measured by inhaling helium and measuring the dilution. Estimations of FM and FFM can then be made. This technique is perhaps the most direct and accurate technique to measure body fat, but there are few places that have this facility and it is not a very practical method.

There are a number of techniques that can be used to measure body composition. The technique we should use depends on the goal of the measurement. For example, if we want to know more about bone density, we should use DXA. Patients with cancer, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, as well as sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly, are a few examples among several other diseases that can be assessed by body composition.

Body composition outcomes help evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions, the alterations associated with growth and disease conditions, and it contributes to the development of personalized physical training programs 1 — 3.

There are several techniques for assessing body composition, from simple body indices based on anthropometric measurements to sophisticated laboratory methods such as magnetic resonance imaging 4 , with the ability to assess different body compartments at different levels 5 , 6.

Thus, many studies have been conducted in order to develop and validate techniques, which can be extremely useful for health professionals to estimate body composition components such as fat mass, muscle mass, bone mass, and residual mass, or simply fat mass and fat-free mass 7 — The aim of this Research Topic is to address the most recent innovations in body composition assessment for its application in epidemiological studies, as well as in clinical practice, providing health professionals with concepts and evidence of its usefulness, while assisting them with the most appropriate selection of techniques according to the characteristics of the individuals or groups evaluated.

In this Research Topic, 22 papers were published, divided into three groups of studies: development of predictive models and validation of existing predictive models; cross-sectional descriptive studies; intervention studies; and a systematic review and meta-analysis.

However, studies that developed or tested the validity of predictive models of these techniques used mainly dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA as the standard technique, while two studies used computed tomography and one study used air displacement plethysmography. The most discussed aspect was the development of predictive models and the validation of existing models.

Nine of the 22 The study by Costa et al. first tested the validity of eight equations for estimating fat-free mass FFM by bioelectrical impedance analysis, developed for adolescents from different populations, verifying that none of them met the validity criteria in the sample of adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, from the northeastern region of Brazil.

Thus, the authors developed and cross-validated a specific mathematical model for this population. Still, in the same region of the country, but for adults aged 20 to 59 years, Ribeiro da Costa et al. tested the validity of the body adiposity index BAI proposed by Bergman et al.

Then, the authors developed a regression equation that was included in the model, in addition to the BAI variables height, waist circumference, and hip circumference , weight, gender, and age, to estimate the FFM and total body fat, using anthropometric measurements. Likewise, or more important than the amount of body fat, is its distribution, as a higher concentration of fat in the abdominal region, especially visceral fat, is associated with non-communicable chronic diseases and increased morbidity and mortality 14 , However, measuring fat in this region demands high-cost laboratory techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography 11 , 16 , indicating the need for valid predictive models for clinical or epidemiological screening.

This aspect was contemplated in two articles by Lai et al. Both studies used computed tomography as the standard technique. Another aspect worth mentioning is that the validity of techniques for estimating the body composition of under 6 year-old children still needs to be clarified in the literature Lyons-Reid et al.

The authors demonstrated that the inclusion of impedance in the equations instead of just anthropometric parameters improved performance in most cases, but the difference was slight. Further investigation was suggested before the routine use of BIA in childhood can be recommended.

Studies on changes in body composition due to aging have been highlighted, mainly due to the negative impact of sarcopenia on health in elderly populations, suggesting the need for valid clinical techniques to assess this condition Cáñez-Ríos et al.

verified the agreement between six bioimpedance equations and DXA to estimate the appendicular skeletal muscle mass; van den Helder et al. validated bioimpedance analysis to diagnose low appendicular lean mass; and Velázquez-Alva et al.

evaluated the agreement between bioimpedance measurements and five anthropometric equations for estimating body fat, using DXA as a standard. Another important aspect is the difficulty of assessing body composition in people with disabilities. Although there are mathematical models for estimating fat-free mass, by bioelectrical impedance analysis, in people with spinal cord injury, it needs to be clarified whether they can be generalized to people with this condition Bauermann et al.

demonstrated that using non-specific impedance measurement equations can lead to an erroneous interpretation of FFM values in male subjects with spinal cord injury, indicating the need to develop new predictive equations for this group.

Mattiello et al. de Moraes et al. The authors concluded that research with adolescents considering phase angle should use multilevel modeling with standardized parameters as default to adjust for the concurrent influence of sex, age, maturity status, and body size. Using anthropometric measurements, such as body mass, height, body circumferences, and indices based on these and other measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis constitutes a tool for risk screening for adverse health conditions throughout life 13 , These measurements or indices may be associated with arterial properties and variations Gómez-García et al.

In this Research Topic, five articles performed interventions to analyze different outcomes. Sheikholeslami-Vatani and Rostamzadeh investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training and vitamin D3 supplementation on changes in appetite-dependent hormones and body composition in sedentary overweight men, finding satisfactory results.

In the study by Lazzer et al. They carried out a randomized controlled trial to test the effects of aquatic resistance training and dietary education on health indicators in older women, including body composition. The results suggest that older women who practice regular and programmed underwater resistance training, among other benefits, have improved body composition variables smaller fat compartments and greater muscle mass.

Another randomized controlled trial aimed to verify the impacts of water supplementation on body composition indices in young adults after a h overnight fast to determine the ideal volume of water to improve body water composition. Among other findings, the authors concluded that mL was the minimum volume capable of improving the distribution of water content among the participants of this study Zhang et al.

And finally, studying preterm-born preschoolers with very low birth weight, Fernandes et al. verified the impact of a continuous early home-based intervention program on body composition.

The study showed that an early intervention protocol from the newborn intensive care unit NICU to a home program performed by mothers of preterm with very low birth weight VLBW children from low-income families has a small effect on fat-free mass. As mentioned, this Research Topic also published a systematic review and meta-analysis that surveyed diagnostic studies to identify the optimal cutoff value for the waist-to-height ratio WHtR to predict central obesity in children and adolescents.

The 12 articles included in the meta-analysis led to the conclusion that 0. In summary, the results of the studies and the review in this volume bring a substantial amount of relevant data on body composition assessment techniques in their different uses.

Thus, these manuscripts contribute to a better understanding and better using different techniques for estimating body components in clinical and field situations to optimize dietary and physical exercise programs.

All authors participated in the elaboration, writing, revision and approval of the final document of this editorial. We thank all the authors who submitted their manuscripts to this Research Topic, contributing substantially to the production of knowledge in the field of Body Composition Assessment.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Campa F, Toselli S, Mazzilli M, Gobbo LA, Coratella G. Assessment of body composition in athletes: a narrative review of available methods with special reference to quantitative and qualitative bioimpedance analysis. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

Kuriyan R. Body composition techniques. Indian J Med Res. Mazzoccoli G. Body composition: where and when. Eur J Radiol. Borga M, West J, Bell JD, Harvey NC, Romu T, Heymsfield SB, et al. Advanced body composition assessment: from body mass index to body composition profiling.

J Investig Med. Fosbøl M, Zerahn B. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

Body fat oBdy be Techhnique in several ways, with each body fat assessment method having pros and cons. Digestive health tips is technjque brief overview of some assessmeht the most popular methods for measuring body fat-from basic body measurements to high-tech body scans-along with their strengths and limitations. Adapted from 1. Like the waist circumference, the waist-to-hip ratio WHR is also used to measure abdominal obesity. Equations are used to predict body fat percentage based on these measurements. Body composition assessment technique

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