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Selenium CSS selectors

Selenium CSS selectors

Locates elements whose selectorrs name contains the search value compound class names Hydration and dehydration not permitted. forBrowser 'chrome'. Blog Webinar Video Case Studies Whitepaper Academy. Last modified October 20, Tweak some English-language documentation for clarity and correctness 1ed

Selenium CSS selectors -

A CSS Selector is a combination of an element selector and a value which identifies the web element within a web page. They are string representations of HTML tags, attributes, Id and Class.

As such they are patterns that match against elements in a tree and are one of several technologies that can be used to select nodes in an XML document. Today we'll cover simple CSS selectors, then more advanced, then pseudo-classes, which are essentially powerful, built-in matching functions that reduce a search to just what you are looking for.

That is the element type, which could be input for a text box or button, img for an image, or "a" for a link. HTML pages are structured like XML, with children nested inside of parents.

If you can locate, for example, the first link within a div, you can construct a string to reach it. Writing nested divs can get tiring - and result in code that is brittle.

Sometimes you expect the code to change, or want to skip layers. This is useful for navigating lists of elements, such as forms or ul items. We can easily select the username element without adding a class or an id to the element. We can even chain filters to be more specific with our selectors. CSS selectors in Selenium allow us to navigate lists with more finesse than the above methods.

If we have a ul and we want to select its fourth li element without regard to any other elements, we should use nth-child or nth-of-type. Nth-child is a pseudo-class. In straight CSS, that allows you to override behavior of certain elements; we can also use it to select those elements.

If we want to select the fourth li element Goat in this list, we can use the nth-of-type, which will find the fourth li in the list. Notice the two colons, a recent change to how CSS identifies pseudo-classes. On the other hand, if we want to get the fourth element only if it is a li element, we can use a filtered nth-child which will select Car in this case.

This may be useful in testing css layout in selenium. In XPATH this would be similar to using [4]. An earlier version of this article references :contains, a powerful way to match elements that had a desired inner text block.

Sadly, that feature is deprecated and not supported any longer by the W3C Standard. The current CSS Selectors level 3 standard is implemented by all major browsers; level 4 is in working draft mode. That standard document has a detailed list of selectors and pseudo-classes.

For a more manageable list, look at the Mozilla Documentation which has a wonderful, complete list of psuedo classes. Drill into any pseudo-class and scroll down for specific information on compatibility in different browsers, including this example from the nth-child pseudo-class.

tagName "input". above By. id "password" ;. above { By. ID : "password" }. WithLocator By. TagName "input". Above By. Id "password" ;. tagName 'input'. id 'password' ;. id "password". below By. id "email" ;. below { By. ID : "email" }. Below By. Id "email" ;.

id 'email' ;. id "email". tagName "button". toLeftOf By. id "submit" ;. ID : "submit" }. LeftOf By. Id "submit" ;. tagName 'button'. id 'submit' ;. id "submit". toRightOf By. id "cancel" ;. ID : "cancel" }. RightOf By. Id "cancel" ;.

id 'cancel' ;. id "cancel". near By. id "lbl-email" ;. near { By. ID : "lbl-email" }. Near By. Id "lbl-email" ;. id 'lbl-email' ;. Similar to the child and sub-child, we can also use a CSS Selector to select the nth-child of an HTML tag.

It is quite useful in recognizing list elements or in scenarios where a parent has multiple child elements with non-consistent attributes. Similar to XPath, CSS Selector also allows users to locate elements by using partial strings. It uses different symbols to represent the start, end, and the contents inside a text.

For example, we will use the following element, i. We can locate an element by using the starting text of the element. It is quite useful if you know the starting text of the element attribute. We can use the starting character sequence of the attribute value to locate the element using CSS Selectors.

Using this symbol in the CSS Selector, the expression for locating the web element will be:. Here, we have used the id attribute. In this expression, we have used the first five characters of the expression. We can use any number of characters from the beginning.

Similar to the starting text, we can also use ending text to recognize the element. A sequence of the ending character of the attribute value can locate any web element.

Here we have used the last three characters of the attribute value. The attribute and value can change as per the scenario.

Other than starting and ending, the CSS Selector in Selenium is also available with contains text. It can locate the element by using any sequential characters from the attribute value. Here, we have used the middle characters of the id attribute value, i. Note: Always make sure that your CSS expression points to a unique element.

Sometimes choosing a generic CSS Selector may point to several different elements. If this happens, Selenium will always recognize the first element pointed by the CSS locator.

Hence the automation script will fail if it's not the required element. Home Selenium-Webdriver CSS Selectors in Selenium. Table of Contents. Selenium WebDriver Tutorial. CSS Selectors in Selenium Category: Selenium-Webdriver , October 1 Next Lesson.

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Locating elements by CSS selectors is the preferred selectorss as Replenish sustainable skincare Selenium CSS selectors faster and more readable than XPath. In CSS, we can use selector to select the id Sekectors of Hydration and dehydration element:. The same principle can be used to locate elements by their class attribute. Sometimes there is a need to be more specific with the selection criteria in order to locate the correct element. In this situation, we have to locate the element by both class and style. This CSS selector example shows how NOT to select by specific attribute value.

Selenium CSS selectors -

Open Firebug and inspect the Email input box. Take a note of its Tag, Class and Attribute. If you have any queries by finding elements using CSS Selector Selenium, please comment below in the comment section.

Like this post? Sumasri is a Sr. Software Test Engineer. Currently working in an MNC. She is a co-founder of Software Testing Material. She has an exclusive experience in the field of Software Testing. She writes here about Manual Testing and Automation Testing.

Your email address will not be published. cssSelector method:. findElement By. cssSelector "input:contains 'id' ". sendKeys "hi" ;. Like This Post? Subscribe and get free access to subscriber-only guides, templates, and checklists. Yes, I'm In! You are subscribing to email updates. Unsubscribe anytime.

Your data is safe. Post navigation Previous Previous. Next Continue. Similar Posts. In the above expression, we started with the HTML tag, i.

So this way, we can use any of the unique attributes of the HTML elements to locate those elements using CSS Selectors. As we covered above, CSS Selectors can be used to locate a web element uniquely. But sometimes, using a single attribute may not bring in the desired result; in that case, we combine multiple attributes to precisely locate any element present on the web page.

We can combine the HTML tag with ID, Class, and any other attribute to get the accurate location of the web element. Let's see how we can combine multiple attributes of the web element to create a CSS Selector for the element:.

In the given element, the HTML structure contains a textarea tag, id, and placeholder attribute. We will use these together to create a CSS Selector statement that can easily recognize that element.

So, the CSS Selector element for the above elements will be:. Using the same example as above, we have an HTML structure containing textarea tag, class, and placeholder attribute.

Subsequently, we can use them together to create a CSS Selector for locating the web element, as shown below:. So this way, we can combine various attributes of an HTML element to locate the web element in Selenium uniquely. With the ever-growing new technologies of web development, multiple times, the web pages are created dynamically.

For locating such dynamic web elements, Selenium provides various strategies, such as:. Selenium provides the capability to locate an element in the HTML DOM using its relativity with other HTML elements.

It provides two strategies to locate the web elements related to other HTML elements:. CSS Selectors allow you to select an element by using the locator of the parent element and then moving to the child element. The CSS Selector for locating the child element can be syntactically represented as follows:.

Let's create the CSS selector for locating the textarea element:. Similar to the child and sub-child, we can also use a CSS Selector to select the nth-child of an HTML tag.

It is quite useful in recognizing list elements or in scenarios where a parent has multiple child elements with non-consistent attributes. Similar to XPath, CSS Selector also allows users to locate elements by using partial strings.

It uses different symbols to represent the start, end, and the contents inside a text. For example, we will use the following element, i. We can locate an element by using the starting text of the element.

It is quite useful if you know the starting text of the element attribute. We can use the starting character sequence of the attribute value to locate the element using CSS Selectors. Using this symbol in the CSS Selector, the expression for locating the web element will be:.

Here, we have used the id attribute. In this expression, we have used the first five characters of the expression. We can use any number of characters from the beginning.

Similar to the starting text, we can also use ending text to recognize the element. A sequence of the ending character of the attribute value can locate any web element. Here we have used the last three characters of the attribute value. The attribute and value can change as per the scenario.

Other than starting and ending, the CSS Selector in Selenium is also available with contains text. It can locate the element by using any sequential characters from the attribute value.

Here, we have used the middle characters of the id attribute value, i. Note: Always make sure that your CSS expression points to a unique element.

Sometimes choosing a generic CSS Selector may point to several different elements. If this happens, Selenium will always recognize the first element pointed by the CSS locator. Hence the automation script will fail if it's not the required element. Home Selenium-Webdriver CSS Selectors in Selenium.

Table of Contents. Selenium WebDriver Tutorial. CSS Selectors in Selenium Category: Selenium-Webdriver , October 1 Next Lesson. Share this post:. Write Effective XPaths.

WebDriver Element Locator Firefox Add On. Stale Element Reference Exception. By Gunjan Kaushik. How to avoid StaleElementReferenceException?

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How to handle a CheckBox in Selenium WebDriver? How to perform validations on a CheckBox using Selenium WebDriver? Selenium Waits Commands. By Harish Rajora. What are Selenium wait commands? How to use Implicit wait, explicit wait and fluent wait in Selenium?

Launching Safari browser using Selenium. By Virender Singh. Keyword Driven Framework - Introduction. By Lakshay Sharma.

Faisal Khatri Posted delectors July 15, August 1, 2 min Read. Selenium CSS selectors WebDriver is one Hydration and dehydration the popular selectos automation tools. It is open source and is preferred by many automation engineers to automate the websites. Using Selenium WebDriver is quite simple and easy. We need to follow the following simple steps to write an automated test:.

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