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Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases

Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases

Licensee IntechOpen. Many of the claims, Augoimmune, and Disases presented Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases the internet regarding probiotics Effective antifungal therapy prebiotics, especially Atuoimmune regard to symptom Heart health, are not supported Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases scientific evidence. Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases Pharmaceutical Design, Polonio, Gonzalo Fernandez Lahore, Federico Giovannoni, Kylynne Ferrara, Cristina Gutierrez-Vazquez, Ning Li, Anna Sokolovska, Agustin Plasencia, Camilo Faust Akl, Payal Nanda, Evelin S. Acquired transient. The researchers caution that mice are not people, and the findings remain to be replicated in larger models and, eventually, in humans. Smith PM, Howitt MR, Panikov N, Michaud M, Gallini CA, Bohlooly-Y M, et al.

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What do probiotics do for those with autoimmunity?

Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases -

These foods allow my body to clear and eliminate debris along with re-establishing a newly balanced system. Check for hidden infections — yeast, viruses, bacteria, Lyme, etc.

Candida is a sign that your gut bacteria are out of whack from too many antibiotics and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Get checked for heavy metal toxicity. Mercury and other metals can cause autoimmunity. This is a common problem these days and one that often goes unnoticed until we get symptoms.

Symptoms vanish and you feel better than ever before. Use nutrients such as fish oil, vitamin C, and vitamin D. Help calm your immune response naturally and experience healing in so many regards. It's important to include these nutrients in your diet.

Practice deep relaxation like yoga, deep breathing, biofeedback, or massage, because stress worsens the immune response. Healing Crisis. Check out more about the Healing Crisis and Cultured Foods: Click Here. How to Make Easy Kefir. How to Make Kombucha.

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Differences in neurological symptoms between the control group and the administration groups did not reach statistical significance and support the notion that neither LcS nor BbY exacerbates EAE [ 44 ].

Two years later, Kobayashi and colleagues investigated the safety use of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota LcS in prevention of EAE in a relapse and remission models. LcS was administered 1 week prior antigen sensitization until the end of the experiments. Probiotics did not exacerbate neurological symptoms or histopathological changes of the spinal cord in either model.

LcS administration transiently induces IL production by antigen-stimulated lymphocytes 7 days after sensitization. Strong expression of IL mRNA was detected in the spinal cord of mice that displayed severe neurological symptoms on day 12, but this expression was not enhanced by LcS administration [ 45 ].

In , Kwon and colleagues, from School of Life Sciences and Immune Synapse Research Center, in Republic of Korea, evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of a mixture of five probiotics IRT5 in EAE mice. IRT5 includes Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus reuteri , Bifidobacterium bifidum , and Streptococcus thermophilus.

IRT5 prior treatment, before EAE induction, abrogated the disease development and delayed the EAE onset. Furthermore, the inflammatory subset Th1 and Th17 polarization was suppressed by the administration of IRT5 probiotic. Three years later, Abdurasulova and coworkers, from Institute of Experimental Medicine, in St.

Petersburg, Russian Federation, evaluated the effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain L-3 that was studied in EAE rats. Glatiramer acetate GA was used as control drug. Enterococcus faecium strain L-3 and GA were able to reduce the severity of EAE.

Both approaches prolonged the inductive phase of EAE and reduced the disease duration. Study of the phenotypes of immune cells in the blood revealed the differences in immunoregulatory pathways that mediate the protective action of probiotic or GA treatment of EAE.

The presence of pronounced protective and immunomodulating effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain L-3 opens an opportunity of its application for the adjuvant treatment of MS [ 47 ].

Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control, damage group and treatment group. After the induction of demyelination, probiotics were administered by gavage for 28 days.

Findings demonstrated that probiotics have no significant effect on swimming speed compared with lesion and saline groups. According to some studies, probiotics have a positive impact on improving the performance of spatial memory and learning, although this current study could not indicate finality of this assumption [ 48 ].

A recent study, performed by Secher and colleagues [ 49 ], from the University of Toulouse, in France, evaluated the effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle ECN in EAE model.

The daily oral administration of ECN significantly decreased the disease severity induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG peptide mice immunization. The therapeutic effects could be explained by the increase in the IL anti-inflammatory cytokine and reduction in inflammatory cytokines in the CNS and in the periphery.

In this study, authors showed that EAE trigger is associated with increased gut permeability [ 49 ]. Another recent study, performed in Immunology Research Center, in Mashhad, Iran, Salehipour and colleagues [ 50 ], evaluated the therapeutic effect of probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A7, Bifidobacterium animalis PTCC , or both.

Results showed that treatment with both strains caused a more significant delay in the time of disease onset and clinical score compared with strains used alone. Mononuclear cell infiltration into the CNS was significantly inhibited by the combinational approach. Additionally, Lactobacillus plantarum A7 and Bifidobacterium animalis ameliorated EAE condition by inhibiting IL-6 production, decreasing the release of IFN-γ, a Th1-type cytokine, and IL, a Th17 pro-inflammatory molecule, and increasing the secretion of IL-4, a Th2-type cytokine, and IL and TGF-β, anti-inflammatory cytokines, in the lymph nodes and spleen.

The treatment with Bifidobacterium animalis induced a downregulation of transcription factors T-bet and ROR-γt that generate Th1 and Th17 inflammatory subsets, in the brain and spleen, and promoted an upregulation of GATA3 and Foxp3, which contributes for the Th2 and Treg cell differentiation [ 50 ].

Probiotic applications based on the hygiene hypothesis, such as administration of the eggs from nonpathogenic helminth Trichuris suis ova TSO , have proven safe and effective in autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease. Based on this, Fleming and colleagues [ 6 ], from the University of Wisconsin, in the United States, evaluated the safety and effects of TSO administration in newly diagnosed, non-treated relapsing-remitting MS patients.

Researchers conducted the phase 1 helminth-induced immunomodulatory therapy HINT 1 study by enrollment of five MS patients that took orally TSO, every 2 weeks, for 3 months.

The preliminary outcomes showed increase in the serum levels of IL-4 and IL cytokines and decreased in the mean number of new gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging MRI lesions. TSO was well tolerated in this first human study of the probiotic application in relapsing-remitting MS, and favorable trends were observed in exploratory MRI and immunological parameters [ 6 ].

Two years later, Rosche and colleagues, from the Department of Neurology and Experimental Neurology, in Berlin, Germany, evaluated the administration of Trichuris suis ova eggs orally, every 2 weeks, for 12 months, in relapsing-remitting MS patients.

Fifty patients with relapsing-remitting MS with clinical activity, not undergoing any standard therapies, were enrolled. The safety, tolerability, and effect on disease activity and in vivo mechanisms of action of TSO in MS will be assessed by neurological, laboratory, and immunological exams and MRI throughout the month treatment period and over a follow-up period of 6 months.

No adverse effects were observed, and the Trichuris suis ova group was more effective than the placebo in preventing new T2 and gadolinium-positive lesions, quantified by MRI.

Authors also expect the Th1 and Th17 pro-inflammatory responses polarize toward the anti-inflammatory Th2 response [ 51 ]. In a recent study, Kouchaki and colleagues [ 52 ], from School of Medicine from Kashan, in Islamic Republic of Iran, reported improved Expanded Disability Status Score EDSS , insulin resistance, and a decrease in inflammatory markers in MS patients treated with probiotic supplementation containing Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Bifidobacterium bifidum.

This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial analyzed probiotic intake for 12 weeks in 60 MS patients. Compared with the placebo group, probiotic administration improved EDSS, beck depression inventory, general health questionnaire, and depression anxiety and stress scale.

Furthermore, changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasma nitric oxide metabolites, and malondialdehyde in the probiotic group were significantly different from the changes in these parameters in the control group.

In addition, the probiotic intake significantly decreased insulin levels and total high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and significantly increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and HDL-cholesterol levels compared with the placebo [ 52 ]. Another recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, performed in Islamic Republic of Iran, by Tamtaji and colleagues [ 53 ], evaluated the role of probiotic administration on gene expression associated to inflammatory, glucose, and lipid signaling pathways in MS patients.

The study included 40 patients with MS. Researchers observed that probiotic administration downregulated gene expression of IL-8 and TNF-α mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. On the other hand, probiotics did not affect the gene expression of IL-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma PPAR-γ , or oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor LDLR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients [ 53 ].

Rheumatoid arthritis RA is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of multiple joints, bone erosion, and cartilage destruction. Moreover, RA can affect internal organs such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys.

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor are the most important autoantibodies in RA and can be found before disease onset [ 54 ]. The disease is three times more common in women, and according to the World Health Organization, the worldwide prevalence, which is between 0.

The triggering of RA involves the interaction of HLA genes and environmental factors, such as smoking and infections [ 55 ]. Among environmental factors, dysbiosis has been identified as a possible trigger factor for autoimmunity and RA development [ 56 ]. Experiments in animal models suggest that gut microbiota influences local and systemic immunity and might trigger joint inflammation [ 57 ].

Studies in collagen-induced arthritic CIA mice showed that the administration of antibiotics exacerbates the disease and increases the level of IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further study showed differences in the gut microbiota composition between CIA-susceptible and CIA-resistant mice, with a prevalence of Desulfovibrio , Prevotella , Parabacteroides , Odoribacter , Acetatifactor , Blautia , Coprococcus , and Ruminococcus genera in arthritic mice, in addition to increased levels of serum IL and CD4 Th17 cells in the spleen [ 58 ].

The study performed by Abhari and colleagues [ 59 ], in Shiraz University, in Iran, investigated the possible role of probiotic Bacillus coagulans and prebiotic inulin on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of RA, by using rat models of the disease.

The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in animals and humans. The treatment with the probiotic and prebiotic significantly inhibits serum amyloid A in arthritic rats, and a significant decrease in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α was detected [ 59 ].

Another work, performed in the Department of Probiotics Immunology, Sapporo University, in Japan, Yamashita and colleagues [ 60 ], evaluated the effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus helveticus SBT on CIA development and on the regulation of antigen-specific antibody production and inflammatory immune cells, implicated in the RA development.

Probiotic administration promotes decrease in joint swelling, body weight loss, and the serum level of bovine type II collagen CII -specific antibodies in the CIA mouse model.

In addition, the intraperitoneal inoculation of Lactobacillus helveticus SBT also decreased the arthritis incidence, joint damage, and serum concentrations of IL Findings of this study demonstrated the ability of Lactobacillus helveticus SBT to downregulate the abundance of immune cells and the subsequent production of CII-specific antibodies and IL-6, thereby suppressing the CIA symptoms, indicating its potential for use in the prevention of RA [ 60 ].

Lactobacillus helveticus SBT LH is a lactic acid bacterium with high protease activity and used in starter cultures in the manufacture of cheese. Scientists have demonstrated that LH inhibited the proliferation of lipopolysaccharide LPS -stimulated mouse T and B cells and the human lymphoma cell lines, Jurkat and BJAB.

The findings of this study suggest that LH inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes through the suppression of the JNK signaling pathway and exerts an immunosuppressive effect in vivo, reinforcing their use in treatment of immune-mediated diseases [ 61 ].

Intestinal dysbiosis has been previously identified in patients with RA, and the administration of certain probiotics showed an improvement in RA.

The change in body weight, paw volume and arthritic index, joint stiffness, gait test, mobility test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein level, serum rheumatoid factor, and serum TNF-α was measured on day Cell wall content of Lactobacillus plantarum -treated animals showed improvement in all the parameters as compared to that in CFA-treated animals and exert antiarthritic activity [ 62 ].

Some performed studies evaluating the effect of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy for RA treatment have shown no significant results, and some of these conducted studies have smaller number of patients and a short period of evaluation [ 63 , 64 ].

The earliest study to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in RA was performed in Rheumatism Foundation Hospital, in Finland, and was published in In a pilot study, Hatakka and colleagues evaluated 25 non-treated RA patients that were randomized to receive either two capsules of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus or placebo, twice daily for a year.

Overall, no statistically significant differences were seen between the case and the placebo. Both groups had a decline in tender and swollen joints, and the physician global scores improved in the probiotic group.

Mean erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels remained normal in both groups. The serum concentrations of IL-1β increase in patients treated with Lactobacillus species; however, this increase was not associated with any detectable change in disease status.

Fecal sampling showed an increase in the presence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the probiotic group at 1 year. Based on these results, researchers concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus preparation did not alter RA activity. However, study cohort was small, and enrolled patients have low disease activity [ 65 ].

A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, performed in the University of Western Ontario, Canada, by Pineda and colleagues [ 63 ], evaluated the effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri for 3 months to 29 RA patients.

Fifteen patients were randomized to the probiotic group and 14 to placebo. Alterations in cytokines favored placebo over probiotic group.

There was a significant improvement in the Health Assessment Questionnaire score in the probiotic group. Although researchers did not detect clinical improvement, measured by the American College of Rheumatology criteria, authors reported functional improvement within the probiotic supplementation group compared with the placebo [ 63 ].

Another randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, performed in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, in Iran, by Vaghef-Mehrabany and colleagues [ 64 ], investigated the role of Lactobacillus casei 01 intake in 46 RA patients for 8 weeks.

This clinical trial showed improvement in disease activity score, increased levels of serum IL, and decreased levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α, IL-6, and IL cytokines in treated patients.

In this study, scientists concluded that supplementation improved the disease activity and inflammatory status in RA patients [ 64 ]. Another clinical trial, with the same study design, performed by Zamani and colleagues [ 66 ], in Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, evaluated the effect of probiotic administration on clinical and metabolic parameters in RA patients.

Sixty patients aged 25—70 years were enrolled into two groups to receive either probiotic or placebo. Probiotic group received a daily capsule containing three strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei , and Bifidobacterium bifidum , for 8 weeks.

After intervention, probiotic administration improved Disease Activity Score of 28 joints DAS In addition, a significant decrease in serum insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment-B cell function HOMA-B , and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration was also observed in the probiotic group [ 66 ].

Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE is an autoimmune and heterogeneous disease characterized by damage to the skin, kidneys, lungs, joints, heart, and brain [ 67 ]. The disease affects mainly females, and its worldwide prevalence varies from 30 to 60 per , in the United Kingdom and the United States [ 68 ].

SLE pathogenesis may involve genetic and environmental factors, such as viral infections, defective apoptosis, elevated oxidative stress, and solar exposure to ultraviolet-B waves. Regarding immune response, it is known that autoantibodies bind mainly with nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens [ 69 ].

Moreover, increased evidence has emerged in a recent year that suggests the role of intestinal dysbiosis in SLE development [ 70 ]. In female lupus-prone mice, Zhang and colleagues [ 71 ] reported a decrease in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus species and an increase in Lachnospiraceae members when compared with controls.

Early disease onset and severe symptoms correlated with increased Lachnospiraceae reads in female lupus-prone mice. Additionally, the number of Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae reads increased at specific time points during disease progression [ 71 ]. In a lupus-like animal model, the administration of retinoic acid restored Lactobacillus species and improved lupus symptoms, suggesting the use of these species as a probiotic to diminish inflammation in SLE patients [ 71 ].

Some Lactobacillus species have been demonstrated to have immunomodulatory properties in the host gut mucosa, such as inhibiting neutrophil extracellular trap formation, improving antioxidant status, and increasing the expression of adhesion molecules in the gut [ 73 , 74 ].

When researchers evaluated the administration of the three probiotic strains, they observed a significant decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations and increase in antioxidant activity in serum and liver samples higher glutathione GSH and 1,1-diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl levels and lower malondialdehyde levels.

Another investigation from the same group demonstrated that supplementation with these three probiotic strains ameliorates hepatic apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, C-reactive protein, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions.

In addition, probiotics decrease the gene expression of hepatic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α proteins, by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways [ 76 ].

Although some studies in SLE animal models showed promising results using probiotic supplementation, currently, there are no clinical trials reported at clinicaltrials.

gov investigating the role of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of SLE patients. Evidences associate intestinal dysbiosis with autoimmune disease pathogenesis. Impaired gut microbiota function and diversity could represent a trigger site of autoimmunity by neo-antigen generation under dysbiotic conditions.

Emerging findings point to the use of probiotics as a preventive functional food and as adjuvant treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, further clinical trials, with large cohorts, to evaluate the security and efficacy of the probiotic administration in patients with autoimmune diseases are needed.

Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Edited by Shymaa Enany. Open access peer-reviewed chapter Probiotic Applications in Autoimmune Diseases Written By Gislane L.

de Oliveira. DOWNLOAD FOR FREE Share Cite Cite this chapter There are two ways to cite this chapter:. Choose citation style Select style Vancouver APA Harvard IEEE MLA Chicago Copy to clipboard Get citation.

Choose citation style Select format Bibtex RIS Download citation. IntechOpen Probiotics Current Knowledge and Future Prospects Edited by Shymaa Enany. From the Edited Volume Probiotics - Current Knowledge and Future Prospects Edited by Shymaa Enany Book Details Order Print.

Chapter metrics overview 1, Chapter Downloads View Full Metrics. Impact of this chapter. Abstract Evidences from animal models and humans have implied the involvement of alterations in the gut microbiota in development of some autoimmune diseases.

Keywords dysbiosis barrier disruption inflammation autoimmunity probiotics. Gislane L. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes T1D is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoimmune reactions against the insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells, resulting in exogenous insulin dependence to control blood glucose levels [ 11 ].

Probiotics in animal models of autoimmune diabetes The intestinal microbiota might modulate the autoimmune T1D pathogenesis via two mechanisms, recently proposed by Knip and Honkanen [ 18 ], from the University of Helsinki, in Finland. Probiotic applications in T1D patients Probiotic supplementation has been hypothesized to affect innate and adaptive immune responses to environmental antigens by supporting healthy gut microbiota and could therefore be used to prevent the onset of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity and treat the stablished disease [ 29 ].

Multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis MS is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system CNS and is characterized by immune reactions against myelin proteins and gangliosides.

Probiotics in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Several studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE mice reported the immunomodulatory functions of probiotic administration. Probiotic applications in MS patients Probiotic applications based on the hygiene hypothesis, such as administration of the eggs from nonpathogenic helminth Trichuris suis ova TSO , have proven safe and effective in autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis RA is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of multiple joints, bone erosion, and cartilage destruction. Probiotics in animal models of RA Experiments in animal models suggest that gut microbiota influences local and systemic immunity and might trigger joint inflammation [ 57 ].

Probiotic applications in RA patients Some performed studies evaluating the effect of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy for RA treatment have shown no significant results, and some of these conducted studies have smaller number of patients and a short period of evaluation [ 63 , 64 ].

Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE is an autoimmune and heterogeneous disease characterized by damage to the skin, kidneys, lungs, joints, heart, and brain [ 67 ]. Probiotics in animal models of SLE In female lupus-prone mice, Zhang and colleagues [ 71 ] reported a decrease in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus species and an increase in Lachnospiraceae members when compared with controls.

Treg T regulatory cells T1D Type 1 diabetes NOD mice Nonobese diabetic mice IL Interleukin TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-alpha TGF-β Transforming growth factor-beta MCP-1 Macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 IDO Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase NOR mice Resistant NOD mice TEDDY The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young MS Multiple sclerosis CNS Central nervous system EAE Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis PSA Polysaccharide A GA Glatiramer acetate MOG Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein TSO Trichuris suis ova MRI Magnetic resonance imaging EDSS Expanded Disability Status Score HDL High-density lipoproteins RA Rheumatoid arthritis CIA mice Collagen-induced arthritic mice LPS Lipopolysaccharide CII Type II collagen-specific antibodies NZB New Zealand black mice.

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Jia L, Shan K, Pan LL, Feng N, Lv Z, Sun Y, Li J, Wu C, Zhang H, Chen W, Diana J, Sun J, Chen YQ. Clostridium butyricum CGMCC Frontiers in Immunology. De Oliveira GLV, Leite AZ, Higuchi BS, Gonzaga MI, Mariano VS.

Intestinal dysbiosis and probiotic applications in autoimmune diseases. Uusitalo U, Liu X, Yang J, Aronsson CA, Hummel S, Butterworth M, Lernmark Å, Rewers M, Hagopian W, She JX, Simell O, Toppari J, Ziegler AG, Akolkar B, Krischer J, Norris JM, Virtanen SM, TEDDY Study Group.

These trillions anc microbial organisms, which normally Prboiotics a Strategic weight management Diesases and Strategic weight management intestine, Performance-enhancing nutrition your Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases. We Proviotics on these microbes for our health and well being, and Disease depend on us for their Herbal wellness supplements. I love them with all my heart because they made Peobiotics well, and they gave me a life beyond my wildest dreams and continue to do so. So, I am their voice and messenger so you can understand all they do for you and then harness their power to make your body feel better than ever before. Our bodies house trillions of bacteria. If we feed them properly, they will keep our immune system running strong. These bacteria digest foods that are indigestible to us, such as fiber, and they make this food into vitamins and compounds that we need but can't make for ourselves.

Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases -

Based on this, Fleming and colleagues [ 6 ], from the University of Wisconsin, in the United States, evaluated the safety and effects of TSO administration in newly diagnosed, non-treated relapsing-remitting MS patients.

Researchers conducted the phase 1 helminth-induced immunomodulatory therapy HINT 1 study by enrollment of five MS patients that took orally TSO, every 2 weeks, for 3 months.

The preliminary outcomes showed increase in the serum levels of IL-4 and IL cytokines and decreased in the mean number of new gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging MRI lesions. TSO was well tolerated in this first human study of the probiotic application in relapsing-remitting MS, and favorable trends were observed in exploratory MRI and immunological parameters [ 6 ].

Two years later, Rosche and colleagues, from the Department of Neurology and Experimental Neurology, in Berlin, Germany, evaluated the administration of Trichuris suis ova eggs orally, every 2 weeks, for 12 months, in relapsing-remitting MS patients.

Fifty patients with relapsing-remitting MS with clinical activity, not undergoing any standard therapies, were enrolled. The safety, tolerability, and effect on disease activity and in vivo mechanisms of action of TSO in MS will be assessed by neurological, laboratory, and immunological exams and MRI throughout the month treatment period and over a follow-up period of 6 months.

No adverse effects were observed, and the Trichuris suis ova group was more effective than the placebo in preventing new T2 and gadolinium-positive lesions, quantified by MRI. Authors also expect the Th1 and Th17 pro-inflammatory responses polarize toward the anti-inflammatory Th2 response [ 51 ].

In a recent study, Kouchaki and colleagues [ 52 ], from School of Medicine from Kashan, in Islamic Republic of Iran, reported improved Expanded Disability Status Score EDSS , insulin resistance, and a decrease in inflammatory markers in MS patients treated with probiotic supplementation containing Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Bifidobacterium bifidum.

This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial analyzed probiotic intake for 12 weeks in 60 MS patients. Compared with the placebo group, probiotic administration improved EDSS, beck depression inventory, general health questionnaire, and depression anxiety and stress scale.

Furthermore, changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasma nitric oxide metabolites, and malondialdehyde in the probiotic group were significantly different from the changes in these parameters in the control group. In addition, the probiotic intake significantly decreased insulin levels and total high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and significantly increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and HDL-cholesterol levels compared with the placebo [ 52 ].

Another recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, performed in Islamic Republic of Iran, by Tamtaji and colleagues [ 53 ], evaluated the role of probiotic administration on gene expression associated to inflammatory, glucose, and lipid signaling pathways in MS patients.

The study included 40 patients with MS. Researchers observed that probiotic administration downregulated gene expression of IL-8 and TNF-α mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients.

On the other hand, probiotics did not affect the gene expression of IL-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma PPAR-γ , or oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor LDLR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients [ 53 ]. Rheumatoid arthritis RA is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of multiple joints, bone erosion, and cartilage destruction.

Moreover, RA can affect internal organs such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor are the most important autoantibodies in RA and can be found before disease onset [ 54 ].

The disease is three times more common in women, and according to the World Health Organization, the worldwide prevalence, which is between 0. The triggering of RA involves the interaction of HLA genes and environmental factors, such as smoking and infections [ 55 ].

Among environmental factors, dysbiosis has been identified as a possible trigger factor for autoimmunity and RA development [ 56 ]. Experiments in animal models suggest that gut microbiota influences local and systemic immunity and might trigger joint inflammation [ 57 ]. Studies in collagen-induced arthritic CIA mice showed that the administration of antibiotics exacerbates the disease and increases the level of IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Further study showed differences in the gut microbiota composition between CIA-susceptible and CIA-resistant mice, with a prevalence of Desulfovibrio , Prevotella , Parabacteroides , Odoribacter , Acetatifactor , Blautia , Coprococcus , and Ruminococcus genera in arthritic mice, in addition to increased levels of serum IL and CD4 Th17 cells in the spleen [ 58 ].

The study performed by Abhari and colleagues [ 59 ], in Shiraz University, in Iran, investigated the possible role of probiotic Bacillus coagulans and prebiotic inulin on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of RA, by using rat models of the disease.

The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in animals and humans. The treatment with the probiotic and prebiotic significantly inhibits serum amyloid A in arthritic rats, and a significant decrease in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α was detected [ 59 ].

Another work, performed in the Department of Probiotics Immunology, Sapporo University, in Japan, Yamashita and colleagues [ 60 ], evaluated the effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus helveticus SBT on CIA development and on the regulation of antigen-specific antibody production and inflammatory immune cells, implicated in the RA development.

Probiotic administration promotes decrease in joint swelling, body weight loss, and the serum level of bovine type II collagen CII -specific antibodies in the CIA mouse model. In addition, the intraperitoneal inoculation of Lactobacillus helveticus SBT also decreased the arthritis incidence, joint damage, and serum concentrations of IL Findings of this study demonstrated the ability of Lactobacillus helveticus SBT to downregulate the abundance of immune cells and the subsequent production of CII-specific antibodies and IL-6, thereby suppressing the CIA symptoms, indicating its potential for use in the prevention of RA [ 60 ].

Lactobacillus helveticus SBT LH is a lactic acid bacterium with high protease activity and used in starter cultures in the manufacture of cheese. Scientists have demonstrated that LH inhibited the proliferation of lipopolysaccharide LPS -stimulated mouse T and B cells and the human lymphoma cell lines, Jurkat and BJAB.

The findings of this study suggest that LH inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes through the suppression of the JNK signaling pathway and exerts an immunosuppressive effect in vivo, reinforcing their use in treatment of immune-mediated diseases [ 61 ].

Intestinal dysbiosis has been previously identified in patients with RA, and the administration of certain probiotics showed an improvement in RA. The change in body weight, paw volume and arthritic index, joint stiffness, gait test, mobility test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein level, serum rheumatoid factor, and serum TNF-α was measured on day Cell wall content of Lactobacillus plantarum -treated animals showed improvement in all the parameters as compared to that in CFA-treated animals and exert antiarthritic activity [ 62 ].

Some performed studies evaluating the effect of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy for RA treatment have shown no significant results, and some of these conducted studies have smaller number of patients and a short period of evaluation [ 63 , 64 ].

The earliest study to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in RA was performed in Rheumatism Foundation Hospital, in Finland, and was published in In a pilot study, Hatakka and colleagues evaluated 25 non-treated RA patients that were randomized to receive either two capsules of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus or placebo, twice daily for a year.

Overall, no statistically significant differences were seen between the case and the placebo. Both groups had a decline in tender and swollen joints, and the physician global scores improved in the probiotic group. Mean erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels remained normal in both groups.

The serum concentrations of IL-1β increase in patients treated with Lactobacillus species; however, this increase was not associated with any detectable change in disease status. Fecal sampling showed an increase in the presence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the probiotic group at 1 year.

Based on these results, researchers concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus preparation did not alter RA activity. However, study cohort was small, and enrolled patients have low disease activity [ 65 ]. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, performed in the University of Western Ontario, Canada, by Pineda and colleagues [ 63 ], evaluated the effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri for 3 months to 29 RA patients.

Fifteen patients were randomized to the probiotic group and 14 to placebo. Alterations in cytokines favored placebo over probiotic group. There was a significant improvement in the Health Assessment Questionnaire score in the probiotic group.

Although researchers did not detect clinical improvement, measured by the American College of Rheumatology criteria, authors reported functional improvement within the probiotic supplementation group compared with the placebo [ 63 ].

Another randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, performed in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, in Iran, by Vaghef-Mehrabany and colleagues [ 64 ], investigated the role of Lactobacillus casei 01 intake in 46 RA patients for 8 weeks.

This clinical trial showed improvement in disease activity score, increased levels of serum IL, and decreased levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α, IL-6, and IL cytokines in treated patients. In this study, scientists concluded that supplementation improved the disease activity and inflammatory status in RA patients [ 64 ].

Another clinical trial, with the same study design, performed by Zamani and colleagues [ 66 ], in Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, evaluated the effect of probiotic administration on clinical and metabolic parameters in RA patients.

Sixty patients aged 25—70 years were enrolled into two groups to receive either probiotic or placebo. Probiotic group received a daily capsule containing three strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei , and Bifidobacterium bifidum , for 8 weeks.

After intervention, probiotic administration improved Disease Activity Score of 28 joints DAS In addition, a significant decrease in serum insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment-B cell function HOMA-B , and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration was also observed in the probiotic group [ 66 ].

Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE is an autoimmune and heterogeneous disease characterized by damage to the skin, kidneys, lungs, joints, heart, and brain [ 67 ]. The disease affects mainly females, and its worldwide prevalence varies from 30 to 60 per , in the United Kingdom and the United States [ 68 ].

SLE pathogenesis may involve genetic and environmental factors, such as viral infections, defective apoptosis, elevated oxidative stress, and solar exposure to ultraviolet-B waves.

Regarding immune response, it is known that autoantibodies bind mainly with nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens [ 69 ]. Moreover, increased evidence has emerged in a recent year that suggests the role of intestinal dysbiosis in SLE development [ 70 ].

In female lupus-prone mice, Zhang and colleagues [ 71 ] reported a decrease in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus species and an increase in Lachnospiraceae members when compared with controls. Early disease onset and severe symptoms correlated with increased Lachnospiraceae reads in female lupus-prone mice.

Additionally, the number of Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae reads increased at specific time points during disease progression [ 71 ].

In a lupus-like animal model, the administration of retinoic acid restored Lactobacillus species and improved lupus symptoms, suggesting the use of these species as a probiotic to diminish inflammation in SLE patients [ 71 ].

Some Lactobacillus species have been demonstrated to have immunomodulatory properties in the host gut mucosa, such as inhibiting neutrophil extracellular trap formation, improving antioxidant status, and increasing the expression of adhesion molecules in the gut [ 73 , 74 ].

When researchers evaluated the administration of the three probiotic strains, they observed a significant decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations and increase in antioxidant activity in serum and liver samples higher glutathione GSH and 1,1-diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl levels and lower malondialdehyde levels.

Another investigation from the same group demonstrated that supplementation with these three probiotic strains ameliorates hepatic apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, C-reactive protein, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions.

In addition, probiotics decrease the gene expression of hepatic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α proteins, by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways [ 76 ]. Although some studies in SLE animal models showed promising results using probiotic supplementation, currently, there are no clinical trials reported at clinicaltrials.

gov investigating the role of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of SLE patients. Evidences associate intestinal dysbiosis with autoimmune disease pathogenesis. Impaired gut microbiota function and diversity could represent a trigger site of autoimmunity by neo-antigen generation under dysbiotic conditions.

Emerging findings point to the use of probiotics as a preventive functional food and as adjuvant treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, further clinical trials, with large cohorts, to evaluate the security and efficacy of the probiotic administration in patients with autoimmune diseases are needed.

Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Edited by Shymaa Enany. Open access peer-reviewed chapter Probiotic Applications in Autoimmune Diseases Written By Gislane L. de Oliveira. DOWNLOAD FOR FREE Share Cite Cite this chapter There are two ways to cite this chapter:.

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Impact of this chapter. Abstract Evidences from animal models and humans have implied the involvement of alterations in the gut microbiota in development of some autoimmune diseases. Keywords dysbiosis barrier disruption inflammation autoimmunity probiotics. Gislane L. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes T1D is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoimmune reactions against the insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells, resulting in exogenous insulin dependence to control blood glucose levels [ 11 ].

Probiotics in animal models of autoimmune diabetes The intestinal microbiota might modulate the autoimmune T1D pathogenesis via two mechanisms, recently proposed by Knip and Honkanen [ 18 ], from the University of Helsinki, in Finland.

Probiotic applications in T1D patients Probiotic supplementation has been hypothesized to affect innate and adaptive immune responses to environmental antigens by supporting healthy gut microbiota and could therefore be used to prevent the onset of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity and treat the stablished disease [ 29 ].

Multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis MS is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system CNS and is characterized by immune reactions against myelin proteins and gangliosides. Probiotics in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Several studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE mice reported the immunomodulatory functions of probiotic administration.

Probiotic applications in MS patients Probiotic applications based on the hygiene hypothesis, such as administration of the eggs from nonpathogenic helminth Trichuris suis ova TSO , have proven safe and effective in autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis RA is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of multiple joints, bone erosion, and cartilage destruction. Probiotics in animal models of RA Experiments in animal models suggest that gut microbiota influences local and systemic immunity and might trigger joint inflammation [ 57 ].

Probiotic applications in RA patients Some performed studies evaluating the effect of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy for RA treatment have shown no significant results, and some of these conducted studies have smaller number of patients and a short period of evaluation [ 63 , 64 ].

Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE is an autoimmune and heterogeneous disease characterized by damage to the skin, kidneys, lungs, joints, heart, and brain [ 67 ].

Probiotics in animal models of SLE In female lupus-prone mice, Zhang and colleagues [ 71 ] reported a decrease in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus species and an increase in Lachnospiraceae members when compared with controls.

Treg T regulatory cells T1D Type 1 diabetes NOD mice Nonobese diabetic mice IL Interleukin TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-alpha TGF-β Transforming growth factor-beta MCP-1 Macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 IDO Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase NOR mice Resistant NOD mice TEDDY The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young MS Multiple sclerosis CNS Central nervous system EAE Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis PSA Polysaccharide A GA Glatiramer acetate MOG Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein TSO Trichuris suis ova MRI Magnetic resonance imaging EDSS Expanded Disability Status Score HDL High-density lipoproteins RA Rheumatoid arthritis CIA mice Collagen-induced arthritic mice LPS Lipopolysaccharide CII Type II collagen-specific antibodies NZB New Zealand black mice.

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Frontiers in Microbiology. Bron PA, Kleerebezem M, Brummer RJ, Cani PD, Mercenier A, MacDonald TT, Garcia-Ródenas CL, Wells JM. Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function? The British Journal of Nutrition. Hara N, Alkanani AK, Ir D, Robertson CE, Wagner BD, Frank DN, Zipris D.

The role of the intestinal microbiota in type 1 diabetes. Clinical Immunology. Atkinson MA, Chervonsky A. Does the gut microbiota have a role in type 1 diabetes? Early evidence from humans and animal models of the disease.

International Diabetes Federation. International diabetes federation atlas. html [Accessed: ] Moroti C, Souza Magri LF, de Rezende Costa M, Cavallini DCU, Sivieri K. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Lipids in Health and Disease. Ejtahed HS, Mohtadi-Nia J, Homayouni-Rad A, Niafar M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Mofid V. Probiotic yogurt improves antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutrition Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif. Andreasen AS, Larsen N, Pedersen-Skovsgaard T, Berg RMG, Møller K, Svendsen KD, Jakobsen M, Pedersen BK.

Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects. Gill H, Prasad J. Probiotics, immunomodulation, and health benefits.

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Knip M, Honkanen J. Modulation of type 1 diabetes risk by the intestinal microbiome.

Current Diabetes Reports. Claes AK, Zhou JY, Philpott DJ. NOD-like receptors: Guardians of intestinal mucosal barriers. Physiology Bethesda, Md. Sargent J.

Altered gut microbial networks linked to islet cell autoimmunity. Calcinaro F, Dionisi S, Marinaro M, Candeloro P, Bonato V, Marzotti S, Corneli RB, Ferretti E, Gulino A, Grasso F, De Simone C, Di Mario U, Falorni A, Boirivant M, Dotta F.

Oral probiotic administration induces interleukin production and prevents spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse. Kim SH, Huh CS, Choi ID, Jeong JW, HK K, Ra JH, Kim TY, Kim GB, Sim JH, Ahn YT.

The anti-diabetic activity of Bifidobacterium lactis HY in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Applied Microbiology. Wen L, Ley RE, Volchkov PY, Stranges PB, Avanesyan L, Stonebraker AC, Hu C, Wong FS, Szot GL, Bluestone JA, Gordon JI, Chervonsky AV. Innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in the development of Type 1 diabetes.

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Intestinal dysbiosis and probiotic applications in autoimmune diseases. Uusitalo U, Liu X, Yang J, Aronsson CA, Hummel S, Butterworth M, Lernmark Å, Rewers M, Hagopian W, She JX, Simell O, Toppari J, Ziegler AG, Akolkar B, Krischer J, Norris JM, Virtanen SM, TEDDY Study Group.

Association of Early Exposure of probiotics and islet autoimmunity in the TEDDY study. JAMA Pediatrics. Groele L, Szajewska H, Szypowska A. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on beta-cell function in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: Protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

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Lee YK, Menezes JS, Umesaki Y, Mazmanian SK. Proinflammatory T-cell responses to gut microbiota promote experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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PLoS One. Ochoa- Repáraz J, Mielcarz DW, Ditrio LE, Burroughs AR, Begum-Haque S, Dasgupta S, Kasper DL, Kasper LH. Central nervous system demyelinating disease protection by the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis depends on polysaccharide a expression. Journal of Immunology. Ochoa- Repáraz J, Mielcarz DW, Wang Y, Begum-Haque S, Dasgupta S, Kasper DL, Kasper LH.

A polysaccharide from the human commensal Bacteroides Fragilis protects against CNS demyelinating disease. Mucosal Immunology. Ochoa-Repáraz J, Mielcarz DW, Ditrio LE, Burroughs AR, Foureau DM, Haque-Begum S, Kasper LH.

Role of gut commensal microflora in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ezendam J, De Klerk A, Gremmer ER, Van Loveren H. Effects of Bifidobacterium animalis administered during lactation on allergic and autoimmune responses in rodents.

Clinical and Experimental Immunology. Maassen CB, Claassen E. More and more research is coming through that the microbiome plays a role in autoimmune disease. More doctors are starting to prescribe probiotics for autoimmune diseases and certain strains seem to be most effective. Lactobacillus and its many strains can be found naturally in kefir and other cultured foods that I teach you how to make and enjoy.

They found that these strains work very well for autoimmune diseases. Many patients and clinicians now believe that probiotics may be helpful in mitigating the signs and symptoms of disease by restoring the balance and function of microbes in the gut where an imbalance is believed to cause or contribute to the disorder.

I've seen this again and again with people who have IBS and also Rheumatoid Arthritis. Once they start fixing their gut and paying attention, their symptoms get better or go away. Just today a woman posted on my Facebook page saying this:. Donna, since I've been on a rich probiotic diet I have managed my Hashimoto thyroid disease.

Gone are my digestive issues unless I eat something I'm sensitive to. You made me discover probiotics Donna Schwenk's Cultured Food Life and I'm very grateful to you, thank you for being you :. Autoimmune conditions are multifaceted and there is no quick fix, but this is where we really need to talk.

Many have found autoimmunity a thing of the past. Mark Hyman. MD, a functional medicine doctor, works with many patients fixing all manner of autoimmune diseases. He has helped many people discover what is causing their chronic inflammation and keeping their immune system in the "stuck" mode.

Here are some of his recommendations. Do not underestimate the healing crisis the medical term is "Herxheimer reaction" that can occur when you start to heal. As the body releases these toxins to be eliminated, you may feel worse.

As pathogens die, they leave toxic chemicals that can feel like disease. We need time to heal and for our microbiome to change and grow. And when you do, hang on to your hat - you're gonna fly like never before. Click Here.

Each week I'll send you updates, tips, recipes, and more! You might even be a winner of my weekly giveaway! starter cultures, memberships, and more! Click Here to Subscribe. Our products are available in Canada on heydayfermentables. com and on Amazon.

Some of our products are also available on Revolution Fermentation. Our products can be ordered from our friends at Luvele. Our North American sellers RawNori Healthy Living and The Raw Diet Health Shop ship our products internationally.

Look for me on:. Einkorn — Before Gluten Was a Problem How Natto May Help Your Heart and Improve Blood Pressure.

Probiotics and the Autoimmune Epidemic. Trillions Of Bacteria. How Do They Help Us? What is autoimmune disease? Leaky Gut. What To Do. Six Steps. Fixing your gut is crucial in detoxing from heavy metals. I have done this quite effectively by consuming lots of cultured foods.

My Get Better Kefir Smoothie is a good place to start. These foods allow my body to clear and eliminate debris along with re-establishing a newly balanced system.

Check for hidden infections — yeast, viruses, bacteria, Lyme, etc. Candida is a sign that your gut bacteria are out of whack from too many antibiotics and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Get checked for heavy metal toxicity.

Mercury and other metals can cause autoimmunity. This is a common problem these days and one that often goes unnoticed until we get symptoms.

Symptoms vanish and you feel better than ever before. Use nutrients such as fish oil, vitamin C, and vitamin D. Help calm your immune response naturally and experience healing in so many regards. It's important to include these nutrients in your diet.

Practice deep relaxation like yoga, deep breathing, biofeedback, or massage, because stress worsens the immune response. Healing Crisis. Check out more about the Healing Crisis and Cultured Foods: Click Here. How to Make Easy Kefir. How to Make Kombucha. How to Make Cultured Veggies.

Get Better Kefir Smoothie. Listen To My Podcast. Posted in Ailments , Best of , Health and Wellness. Are you on the list? Sign up today and I'll send you my free Getting Started Guide! Come be a part of my cultured food family! Half-Gallon Jar Quart Jar × Close Panel. Become a Member!

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You can still purchase a Biotic Pro membership! If you are from another country and want to find cultures, here are some resources that might help.

The idea of probiotics and prebiotics Aktoimmune part of Probioticss wellness routine has recently increased in popularity. The internet and social media Diseaees share a plethora of claims on Probiootics benefits Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases their consumption; Athletes hydration drink, many claims Low carbohydrate diets a discerning eye Strategic weight management regard to scientific evidence. Probiotics have a long history ; even people in ancient times consumed fermented milk for its health benefits. The state of our gut microbiome the community of microorganisms living in our digestive tracts plays a large role in influencing the state of our immune system [ 1 ] [ 2 ]. There are also differences in the microbiome composition of those living with autoimmunity. Dietary supplementation with prebiotics and probiotics has been documented to exhibit a therapeutic effect. Probiotics and Autoimmune Diseases

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