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Anti-snake venom research

Anti-snake venom research

WILD Anti-snake venom research MED. We also would ressearch to appreciate Angi-snake colleagues from Department of Science Superfood supplement benefits Education in our hospital for for their kindly support to this research work. In developing countries, snakebite is regarded as an occupational health hazard for rural people and a socio-economic problem 18and therefore, PAV should be available at rural health centers. Anti-snake venom research

Anti-snake venom research -

With snakebites, Vissoci has found a problem knotty enough for his approach — but also a potential way to help his native country address a vexing gap in its national health care system. Since the development of antivenom in , deaths and serious injuries from snakebites have become relatively rare in much of the world; in the United States, for example, between 7, and 8, people suffer snakebites each year, but only an average of five die as a result.

Yet an encounter with a venomous snake remains uncommonly lethal in remote parts of northern Brazil — and indeed in many of the places that harbor the most dangerous snakes. According to estimates by the World Health Organization, between 81, and , people around the world die each year after being bitten by venomous snakes, and another , suffer permanent disabilities.

In some places, lack of access or funding for antivenom may contribute to that gap, as does widespread reliance on alternative remedies, such as traditional or herbal healing. While usually harmless, such methods often deter or delay people from receiving antivenom, Gerardo says.

When you factor the difficulty of travel from remote parts of the Amazon, Vissoci says the medication is literally out of reach for those most likely to need it. Intuitive as that may sound, it was not well documented until Vissoci and his collaborators did some serious data mining.

In , he worked with Wuelton Moreira, PhD, and Jacqueline Sachett, PhD, from the Fundação de Medicina Tropical in Manaus and Fan Hui Wen, MD, Ph. Few of them had access to transportation when they were bitten.

Many had to walk to seek help. Most hitched rides on motorcycles or boats to reach a hospital. One multi-legged journey covered more than kilometers miles. The longest gap was 96 hours.

Vissoci loaded the data into a GIS to estimate how long it would take to reach a hospital from various points in the Amazon. The analysis confirmed what patients had told him: If you are bitten by a snake in many parts of the Amazon, the medication that could save you is likely three or more hours away.

But what about moving the antivenom? Vissoci emphasizes that Brazil gets a lot of things right in how it deals with snakebites, particularly its impressive in-country production of antivenom and its commitment to make it free to patients.

It is given intravenously, and some patients experience complications that require advanced clinical responses. Clinicians will need to be trained not only on how to give the medication, but how to spot and refer cases needing specialized care, he says. It will also take time for residents to know and trust treatment closer to home.

Meanwhile, Vissoci and postdoctoral researcher Thiago Rocha, PhD, have designed a toolkit of GIS-powered dashboards that will provide officials with real-time data on where snakebites occur and where medical resources may be needed.

The beauty of those tools is that they can be adapted for other countries and health issues, from scorpion stings to heart attacks to COVID vaccinations. The methodologist in Vissoci can geek out at length about the structure and dynamics of such systems.

He shares the story of another patient researchers met at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical, a year-old boy facing a brutal decision. The boy had suffered a snakebite on his left foot seven years earlier while walking in an indigenous village deep in the forest.

Not until hours later, when the wound appeared to be getting worse, did the family seek medical care. He was given antivenom some 12 hours after the bite, but he had already lost significant tissue and muscle.

However, local blocking therapy with anti-snake venom can meet the treatment requirements, such as a high concentration dose for local tissues. Therefore, a stock solution of anti-snake venom for local closure treatment should be used. Anti-snake venom does not need to be diluted with normal saline, and the higher the concentration of anti-snake venom, the more effective and beneficial the treatment will be for the patients.

Based on the above experimental results, the clinical efficacy of anti-snake venom blocking therapy is much better than the blocking therapy of chymotrypsin; the difference in clinical efficacy is mainly determined by the different pharmacological properties of chymotrypsin and anti-snake venom.

As shown in Table 3 , in the control group: the wound surface significantly increased from the first day Therefore, it may be the high efficiency, specificity and specificity of antibodies that determine the better clinical efficacy of anti-snake venom blocking therapy.

However, chymotrypsin has some effects in promoting wound repair. Anti-snake venom serum plays a role in the early stage of wound necrosis to neutralize local toxins and prevent wound expansion.

But it may not be appropriate to combine the two kinds of blocking therapy, which may interact to reduce the efficacy.

It can be seen that the adverse reactions of our study are within a normal and reasonable range, which proves that the anti-snake venom serum blocking treatment scheme can minimize the local tissue necrosis to the greatest extent, reduce the disability rate, and bring huge benefits to patients.

Furthermore, this treatment plan is also applicable to wound necrosis caused by other snake toxins, such as tissue necrosis caused by elapidae and viper family.

Therefore, future research should not only be limited to the field of treating cobra bites but also give full attention to the toxicological properties of cobra toxins for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, which currently seem to have a broad scope of application.

The innovation of this study is the use of anti-snake venom as a local occlusion therapy, as opposed to the traditional treatment method of anti-snake venom via intravenous injection and local treatment with chymotrypsin. Snakebite is a common clinical emergency, and local tissue necrosis caused by cobra bites is a difficult focus of clinical treatment.

This study improves the traditional chymotrypsin closure treatment method by using anti-snake venom for local closure treatment of snakebite wounds so that the concentration of anti-snake venom in local tissues is higher than that in human serum, which can better neutralize the venom, stop the spread of the venom, and reduce tissue degeneration and necrosis.

This treatment plan has little side effects and will not increase the allergic reaction of anti-snake venom serum. This new treatment protocol has much better clinical efficacy, can obtain more benefit for patients, and is thus worth promoting in clinical treatment.

We would like to thank Dr. Qiang Zhao from Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital for sample collection. We also would like to appreciate our colleagues from Department of Science and Education in our hospital for for their kindly support to this research work.

Article Authors Metrics Comments Media Coverage Reader Comments Figures. Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the clinical therapeutic efficacy of anti-snake venom serum blockade in treating local tissue necrosis caused by Chinese cobra Naja atra bites.

Conclusions Anti-snake venom blocking therapy is a new and improved therapy with good clinical effect on local tissue necrosis caused by Chinese cobra bites; moreover, it is superior to conventional chymotrypsin blocking therapy in the treatment of cobra bites.

Clinical Trial Registration This trial is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, a primary registry of International Clinical Trial Registry Platform, World Health Organization Registration No.

Author summary Chinese cobra bites often cause local tissue necrosis and lead to physical disability, which is the difficulty of treatment. Introduction Snakebite envenoming was added to the list of neglected tropical diseases in by the World Health Organization [ 1 ], and Chinese cobras are widely distributed around the world, posing a great threat to human safety.

Materials and methods 2. Download: PPT. Fig 1. Flow diagram of patient enrollment treatment and follow-up. According to the Chinese Expert Consensus on Snakebite Treatment [ 22 ] and the relevant content of the diagnosis and treatment protocol of Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, the cobra bite cases were diagnosed and confirmed based on the following criteria: A history of snakebites.

The patient saw that it was a Chinese cobra, the described appearance of the snake matched the characteristics of a Chinese cobra, or a medical personnel identified the snake as a cobra. The wound showed bite marks, local redness, and pain.

Moreover, the wound appeared blackened with possible early signs of gangrene. Systemic neuromuscular paralysis symptoms: symptoms appear mostly 1—6 hours after the bite; in mild cases, dizziness, chest tightness, weakness of the limbs; and in severe cases, slurred speech, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, salivation at the corners of the mouth, closed teeth, difficulty swallowing, weak and shallow breathing or difficulty breathing, cyanosis, etc.

The main symptoms of blood system damage are: blood stasis spots present all over the body; blood in the urine; and even hematemesis, hemoptysis, hematochezia, or bleeding; followed by anemia, severe shock, etc. The diagnosis was made based on the presence of symptoms 1 , 2 , and 3 or 1 , 2 , and 4.

The patient met the diagnostic criteria above, and the wound showed local tissue necrosis. Patients did not participate in other trials or treatments before inclusion.

a Pregnant and lactating women; b Patients with various psychiatric diseases, confusion, or dementia; c Patients with varicose veins or edema in the affected limbs; d Patients with diabetes mellitus and long-term poor glycemic control combined with the diabetic foot; e Patients with allergies to chymotrypsin or anti-cobra venom serum; f Patients with cardiac, hepatic, or renal insufficiency; g Patients with combined tumors, hematologic diseases, or immunodeficiency; h Patients treated with glucocorticoids for a long time before admission.

According to the routine treatment plan of the Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Department of Snakebite, the procedure which is shown in S1 Fig was performed as follows [ 23 ]: 1 Naja naja atra Antivenin administered by intravenous injection Shanghai Sailun Biotechnology Co.

Table 1 shows the injection dose for different body parts. Table 1. Injection dose for different body parts for local blocking therapy.

Results 3. Table 2. Comparison of general data of cobra bite patients between the two groups. Table 3. Comparison of wound necrosis volume with Cobra bite between two groups of patients. Fig 2. Comparison of wound healing time with cobra bite between two groups of patients.

Discussion Generally, cobra bites are characterized by high morbidity, and disability and often cause local tissue necrosis. Conclusion Snakebite is a common clinical emergency, and local tissue necrosis caused by cobra bites is a difficult focus of clinical treatment.

Supporting information. S1 CONSORT Checklist. CONSORT checklist of information to include when reporting a randomized trial. s DOC. S1 Fig. Therapeutic schedule of local tissue necrosis caused by Chinese cobra Naja atra bites.

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a Fitness refuel drink version with limited support for CSS. Electrolyte replenishment obtain the best experience, venomm recommend researcn use reduce visceral adipose tissue more up researvh date browser or turn off compatibility Fitness refuel drink in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The fascination and fear of snakes dates back to time immemorial, with the first scientific treatise on snakebite envenoming, the Brooklyn Medical Papyrus, dating from ancient Egypt. Owing to their lethality, snakes have often been associated with images of perfidy, treachery and death. However, snakes did not always have such negative connotations. This study Alternate-day fasting and longevity to evaluate the clinical therapeutic Fitness refuel drink of vwnom venom serum blockade Anti--snake treating local tissue necrosis caused by Chinese cobra Naja atra bites. The experimental Anti--snake received regular as researcn as anti-snake venom serum blocking treatment, whereas Superfood supplement benefits treatment plus chymotrypsin blocking therapy was given to the control group. The necrotic volumes around snake wounds in these groups were detected on the first, third and seventh days. On the third day of treatment, some local tissues in the wounds were randomly selected for pathological biopsy, and the necrosis volume of the local tissue was observed. Furthermore, the amount of time required for wound healing was recorded. Moreover, the pathological biopsies taken from the control group showed nuclear pyknosis, fragmentation, sparse nuclear density, and blurred edges, and the degree of necrosis was much higher than that of the experimental group.

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