Category: Home

Potassium and muscle contraction in athletes

Potassium and muscle contraction in athletes

Fontraction claims Potassium and muscle contraction in athletes may be benefits that haven't cojtraction been proven through research. Low potassium levels hypokalemia muscld cause muscle weakness, lethargy, and irregular heart rate arrhythmia. Note that, similar to sodium intake, high blood pressure patients have to pay extra close attention to potassium. Nutrition Nutrition Basics Vitamins and Supplements. Account Wishlist Cart 0.

Video

The surprising reason our muscles get tired - Christian Moro

Potassium and muscle contraction in athletes -

Adequate potassium and muscle function go hand-in-hand. That's because potassium is necessary for the contraction of not just cardiac muscles but smooth and skeletal muscles as well. The human body contains three main types of muscle groups: smooth muscles, skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles.

And according to MedlinePlus , potassium is critical in muscle contraction for all the three key muscle groups. It's known that potassium and muscle function are inextricably linked. Read more: Symptoms of a Potassium Overdose. Potassium ions are present inside cells in larger amounts than they are outside of cells.

The opposite is true for sodium, which is present in higher amounts outside of the cell. As a result, this difference in concentration level between the two electrolytes causes what is known as " membrane potential ," which needs to be constantly maintained so muscle contraction can occur in any of the three key types of muscle.

Reduced levels of potassium — along with other electrolytes like magnesium and calcium — is one of several reasons why a person's muscles may begin to cramp, experiencing what is sometimes colloquially referred to as a charley horse.

Although the role of sodium in muscle contraction is key to preventing cramping, potassium is equally important. It is an essential electrolyte that the body requires to help reduce the chances of cramping in fatigued muscles. A study published in the February issue of Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology explains that when it comes to heart muscles, the role of sodium in muscle contraction is equally as important as the roles of calcium and potassium in muscle contraction as well.

Low levels of potassium can cause irregular heart rhythms, which, according to Oregon State University's Linus Pauling Institute , if left untreated, can ultimately lead to death.

Read more: If You're Sore From Exercising, Is Lactic Acid to Blame? In addition to the role of potassium in muscle contraction, the mineral is also required by certain enzymes in the body in order for them to properly function.

For example, the process of metabolizing carbohydrates — which needs an enzyme called pyruvate kinase — cannot take place without the presence of potassium.

According to the Dietary Supplement Label Database , the recommended daily dose of potassium for adults is 4, milligrams. This can be easily achieved by consuming meat like steak, pork and chicken, as well as seafood like salmon, cod and sardines.

Third, to the normal range for resting potassium level a normal range for exercise potassium level could be of use. Fourth, in patients suspected to be prone to exercise induced arrhythmia, an exercise test could be considered during which monitoring of potassium level from rest, during exercise, and recovery might yield information of value.

Hyperkalaemia is one of the most clinically important electrolyte abnormalities, because it may cause dangerous cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Important causes of increased potassium levels are given in Table 1.

The physiological increase in potassium level during exercise has already been mentioned. A similar increase in potassium level has been described as a result of generalised muscle cramps such as in epilepsy. It may also be seen in generalized skeletal muscle breakdown such as rhabdomyolysis, trauma against skeletal muscles, burns, and hyperthermia.

Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic anomaly in skeletal muscle ion channels causing depolarization of muscle cells and hyperkalaemia. In these patients, exercise or ingestion of potassium rich nutrients may provoke attacks of paralysis and hyperkalaemia that may be abated by inhalation of a β2-adrenoceptor agonist at the beginning of the attack.

Intravenous administration of potassium may increase potassium level, cause hyperkalaemia, cardiac arrest, and sudden death. Thus, intravenous potassium should always be given with utmost precaution.

Oral potassium intake combined with reduced potassium excretion may cause hyperkalaemia. Several cardiovascular drugs—ACE-inhibitors, AT2-inhibitors, β-adrenoceptor antagonists, aldosterone antagonists, and digoxin—may increase potassium level.

Interestingly all of these drugs have a positive or neutral effect on life expectancy in heart failure patients that may be due to a decreased risk of hypokalaemia.

Digoxin intoxication may be associated with hyperkalaemia due to inhibition of skeletal muscle Na,K-pumps. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with hyperkalaemia due to lack of insulin-stimulated Na,K-pump mediated potassium uptake in skeletal muscles.

Also, acidosis may due to reduced kidney excretion of potassium cause an increase of potassium level and hyperkalaemia. It should be noted that reduced oxidation arising from hypoxia only induces a modest increase in potassium level due to high affinity of the Na,K-pump for oxygen.

ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; AT2, angiotensin 2 receptor; β-blockers, β-adrenoceptor antagonists. Symptoms may be relatively weak.

However, hyperkalaemia may induce arrhythmia that may cause palpitations, dizziness, syncope, and sudden cardiac death. Skeletal muscle function may become impaired causing muscle fatigue and muscle paralysis.

Nevertheless, hyperkalaemia is often detected in a routine blood sample. It may also be detected in a routine ECG. Progressive hyperkalaemia is typically characterized by tented or peaked T waves, widened QRS complexes, flattened P waves, and when extreme by sinus-wave appearance.

Hyperkalaemia may also cause ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. The ECG changes may erroneously mislead ECG interpretation software to determine a two-fold increase in heart rate, and hyperkalaemia should be considered if this phenomenon occurs. On the other hand, if ECG is normal although potassium level is high pseudohyperkalaemia should be considered.

The risk of severe arrhythmia varies among various studies in part due to the methodological challenges associated with measurements as discussed earlier. Similar observations have been found in patients with heart failure indicating that hyperkalaemia should of course be feared, but hypokalaemia should probably be feared even more.

Thus, whenever initiating prophylaxis against or treatment of hyperkalaemia precautions should be taken to avoid subsequent development of hypokalaemia and a subsequent even higher cardiovascular risk. Since determination of potassium levels may be afflicted with various errors, potassium levels should be determined using a standardized set-up ensuring high accuracy and precision of measurements.

Thus, there is a need for establishing an international consensus in this area. Long-term regulation of potassium homoeostasis takes place over hours to days and depends mainly on renal potassium excretion.

Other tissues, mainly skeletal muscles, contribute to short-term regulation of potassium homoeostasis, which takes place over seconds to minutes.

Major causes of hyperkalaemia are renal failure, exercise, epilepsy, tissue breakdown, diabetes, and acidosis, treatment with ACE-inhibitors, AT2-inhibitors, β-blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and digoxin intoxication. Hyperkalaemia may induce impaired muscle function, ECG changes and arrhythmias that may cause palpitations, dizziness, syncope, and sudden cardiac death.

This indicates that of course hyperkalaemia should be feared, but hypokalaemia should probably be feared even more. Thus, whenever initiating prophylaxis against or treatment of hyperkalaemia, precautions should be taken to avoid subsequent development of hypokalaemia and an even higher cardiovascular risk.

Asirvatham JR , Moses V , Bjornson L. Errors in potassium measurement: a laboratory perspective for the clinician. Google Scholar. Rustad P. Reference intervals for 25 of the most frequently used properties in clinical chemistry.

Proposal by Nordic Reference Interval Project NORIP. Klinisk Biokemi i Norden ; 2 : 10 — Ingelfinger JR. A new era for the treatment of hyperkalaemia? N Engl J Med ; : — Rosano GMC , Tamargo J , Kjeldsen KP , Lainscak M , Agewall S , Anker SD , Ceconi C , Coats AJS , Drexel H , Filippatos G , Kaski JC , Lund L , Niessner A , Ponikowski P , Savarese G , Schmidt TA , Seferovic P , Wassmann S , Walther T , Lewis BS.

Expert consensus document on the management of hyperkalaemia in patients with cardiovascular disease treated with renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors: coordinated by the Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 4 : — Kovesdy CP , Appel LJ , Grams ME , Gutekunst L , McCullough PA , Palmer BF , Pitt B , Sica DA , Townsend RR. Potassium homeostasis in health and disease: a scientific workshop cosponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Hypertension.

J Am Soc Hypertens ; 11 : — , Am J Kidney Dis ; 70 : — Kjeldsen K. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death. Exp Clin Cardiol ; 15 : e96 — e McKenna MJ , Schmidt TA , Hargreaves M , Cameron L , Skinner SL , Kjeldsen K. Sprint training increases human skeletal muscle Na, K-ATPase concentration and improves K regulation.

J Appl Physiol ; 75 : — Tran CT , Bundgaard H , Ladefoged SD , Haunsø S , Kjeldsen K. Potassium dynamics are attenuated in hyperkalemia and a determinant of QT adaptation in exercising hemodialysis patients.

J Appl Physiol ; : — Atanasovska T , Smith R , Graff C , Tran CT , Melgaard J , Kanters JK. Protection against severe hypokalemia but impaired cardiac repolarization after intense rowing exercise in healthy humans receiving salbutamol.

National Kidney Foundation. Hyperkalemia: Survey of Awareness and Experience Among Adults with CKD. A Report of Findings. Clausen T. Hormonal and pharmacological modification of plasma potassium homeostasis.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 24 : — Barlow CW , Qayyum MS , Davey PP , Paterson DJ , Robbins PA. Effect of hypoxia on arterial potassium concentration at rest and during exercise in man. Physiol ; 79 : — Eur Heart J ; 34 : — ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the Task Force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology ESC and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes EASD.

Ponikowski P , Voors AA , Anker SD , Bueno H , Cleland JGF , Coats AJS , Falk V , González-Juanatey JR , Harjola V-P , Jankowska EA , Jessup M , Linde C , Nihoyannopoulos P , Parissis JT , Pieske B , Riley JP , Rosano GMC , Ruilope LM , Ruschitzka F , Rutten FH , van der Meer P.

Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association HFA of the ESC. Eur J Heart Fail ; 18 : — Beusekamp JC , Tromp J , van der Wal HH , Anker SD , Cleland JG , Dickstein K , Filippatos G , van der Harst P , Hillege HL , Lang CC , Metra M , Ng LL , Ponikowski P , Samani NJ , van Veldhuisen DJ , Zwinderman AH , Rossignol P , Zannad F , Voors AA , van der Meer P.

Potassium and the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: data from BIOSTAT-CHF. Eur J Heart Fail ; 20 : — Pitt B , Ferreira JP , Zannad F. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with heart failure: current experience and future perspectives.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 3 : 48 — Littmann L , Brearley WD , Taylor L , Monroe MH. Double counting of heart rate by interpretation software: a new electrocardiographic sign of severe hyperkalemia.

Am J Emerg Med ; 25 : — Khodorkovsky B , Cambria B , Lesser M , Hahn B. Do haemolysed potassium specimens need to be repeated? J Emerg Med ; 47 : — Goyal A , Spertus JA , Gosch K , Venkitachalam L , Jones PG , Van den Berghe G , Kosiborod M. Serum potassium levels and mortality in acute myocardial infarction.

JAMA ; : — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Navbar Search Filter European Heart Journal Supplements This issue ESC Publications Cardiovascular Medicine Books Journals Oxford Academic Mobile Enter search term Search. Issues More Content Author videos ESC Content Collections Supplements Submit Author Guidelines Submission Site Open Access Options Self-Archiving Policy Purchase About About European Heart Journal Supplements About the European Society of Cardiology ESC Publications Editorial Board Alerts Advertising and Corporate Services Journals Career Network Terms and Conditions Journals on Oxford Academic Books on Oxford Academic.

ESC Publications. Issues More Content Author videos ESC Content Collections Supplements Submit Author Guidelines Submission Site Open Access Options Self-Archiving Policy Purchase About About European Heart Journal Supplements About the European Society of Cardiology ESC Publications Editorial Board Alerts Advertising and Corporate Services Journals Career Network Terms and Conditions Close Navbar Search Filter European Heart Journal Supplements This issue ESC Publications Cardiovascular Medicine Books Journals Oxford Academic Enter search term Search.

Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. Methodological challenges. Potassium homoeostasis. Pathophysiology of hyperkalaemia. Journal Article.

Official websites use. gov A. gov website belongs ni an official government organization in the United States. gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a disorder that affects muscles used for movement skeletal muscles. Many physiological Potassium and muscle contraction in athletes depend Potassiuj certain electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Potassium and muscle contraction in athletes this blog athletez, we delve into the znd of potassium Herbal digestion aids exercise performance. While there is some debate about athletfs importance of potassium to athletes, many studies have shown that it is beneficial to replace lost potassium during the course of exercise. Otherwise, performance will decline. This is due to the role potassium plays in things like nerve functioning, glycogen processing and fluid regulation. Potassium is a salt the body uses to help manage several processes, including sweat, nerve functioning, glycogen and fluid management, and blood pressure. Nerve functioning: Potassium — when broken down into the bloodstream — is an electrolyte, meaning it contains an electric charge.

Author: Faek

4 thoughts on “Potassium and muscle contraction in athletes

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com