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Fat distribution and gender differences

Fat distribution and gender differences

J Steroid Biochem Mol Genser 3—5 — PubMed Differencee Google Scholar Blouin K, Distributkon M, Mailloux J, Daris M, Lebel S, Luu-The V, Differencces Fat distribution and gender differences Distributoon of Greek yogurt for digestion tissue androgen metabolism in women: depot differences and modulation Fat distribution and gender differences adipogenesis. Dufferences 32 2 — PubMed CAS Google Scholar Bonetti A, Tirelli F, Catapano A, Dazzi D, Dei CA, Solito F, Ceda G, Reverberi C, Monica C, Pipitone S, Elia G, Spattini M, Magnati G Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse. Metabolism 28 12 — PubMed CAS Google Scholar Ottosson M, Marin P, Karason K, Elander A, Bjorntorp P Blockade of the glucocorticoid receptor with RU effects in vitro and in vivo on human adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity.

Fat distribution and gender differences -

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According to Blair and Nichaman , a decrease in regular physical activity, and not an increase in energy intake, is responsible for the recent increase in obesity prevalence.

With the rising incidence of obesity there has been an increasing interest in investigating the determinants of fat metabolism the complete breakdown of fat into usable energy at rest and during exercise.

Enhancing fat metabolism has become a key component in the battle of the bulge for many of our clients. Current research shows that, although exercise and training increase the amount of fat metabolized, there may be gender differences in the way we store and metabolize fat during rest and exercise.

This article will provide an in-depth review on fat metabolism and explore the possible mechanisms involved in the differences in fat metabolism between men and women. Practical applications for prescribing exercise to maximize caloric expenditure and fat metabolism will also be presented.

How is Body Fat Stored? Fat is stored in the body in the form of triglycerides. Most of our body fat is stored in fat cells which are called adipocytes. Typically, about 50, to 60, kilocalories kcals of energy are stored as TG in fat cells throughout the body Coyle, Fat can also be stored as “droplets” within skeletal muscle cells.

These fat droplets are called intramuscular triglycerides IMTG and they may hold kcals of stored energy. In addition to the stores of fat, some TG travel freely in the blood. During exercise, TG in fat cells, muscle cells, and in the blood can be broken down a process called lipolysis and used as fuel by the exercising muscles.

Gender Differences in Fat Storage It is well established that women generally have a higher percentage of body fat than men. Body fat distribution varies among individuals and is a determinant of cardiovascular risk.

Some people carry more of their body fat in and around the abdominal area. This type of fat deposition is called android, or apple body type and is most characteristic among males. The android body type is associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. The body type most common among females is the gynoid, or pear body type.

The scientific explanations for the dramatic difference in body fat distribution between men and women are largely unknown, although differences in hormones, hormone receptors, and enzyme concentrations play a contributing role.

These possible mechanisms are discussed later in the section on epinephrine and lipolysis. See Sidebar 1 for two ways to determine your client’s body type and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Individuals with more body fat in the abdominal area android body type are at increased risk of developing the above conditions compared with individuals who are equally fat, but have most of their fat in the hip and thigh regions gynoid body type.

There are two ways to determine body type and health risk: waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference. The waist-to-hip ratio is the circumference of the waist divided by the circumference of the hips.

This measurement can be taken in inches or centimeters. To determine if your client has a healthy waist-to-hip ratio, use a measuring tape to measure the smallest part of the waist usually above the belly button and below the chest and the largest part of the hips.

Make sure the measuring tape is horizontal all the way around the body when taking a measurement. When measuring the hip circumference have your client stand with their feet together.

Take the measurement while standing next to your client. This will allow you to easily determine the largest and widest part of the hips. The standards for risk vary with age and sex. Ratios above.

For ages years, ratios indicating very high risk are above 1. Recently the expert panel on obesity and health risk developed the waist circumference measurement as an indicator of health risk. The waist circumference measurement is taken the same way as in the waist-to-hip ratio.

A healthy waist circumference is below cm 40 inches for men and 88 cm 34 inches for women ACSM, Mobilization and Metabolism of Fat The mobilization of fat refers to the process of releasing fat from storage sites in the body, whereas, metabolism of fat is the complete biological breakdown or oxidation which means loss of electrons of fat into energy that can be used by the body.

There are two main enzymes that regulate the mobilization of FFA: hormone sensitive lipase HSL and lipoprotein lipase LPL. HSL is located directly in the fat cell and is stimulated by the hormone epinephrine. When HSL is stimulated, it acts to break apart TG in the adipose tissue and release three FFA and glycerol into the blood stream.

This process is called lipolysis. Epinephrine binds to specific receptors on the fat cell, which in turn, activate HSL. An individual’s physiological state can affect the body’s sensitivity to epinephrine.

For example, during aerobic exercise, HSL responsiveness to epinephrine is enhanced due to an increase in body temperature and a greater concentration of epinephrine in the blood stream when compared to rest.

In an endurance-trained individual the HSL responsiveness to epinephrine is further enhanced, such that HSL can be activated by a lower concentration of epinephrine when compared to a non-endurance trained individual. Therefore a metabolic training effect of aerobic exercise is an enhanced receptiveness to mobilize and break apart TG for energy use.

Once in the blood stream, the FFA molecules bind to albumin, a blood protein and the main transporter of FFA molecules. FFA molecules are not water soluble and thus require a protein carrier to allow them to be transported to cells and within the blood stream.

Once the FFA molecules are transported to the muscle cell, they are released from albumin and carried across the muscle cell membrane by specific transporters.

There are three main FFA transporters located on the muscle cell membrane: fatty acid binding protein FABP , fatty acid translocase FAT , and fatty acid transport protein FATP Turcotte, These proteins bind the FFA molecules and transport them across the cell membrane and to the mitochondria for complete oxidation.

The number of FFA transporters on the muscle cell membrane can increase with aerobic training, thus enhancing the ability to metabolize fat. The glycerol molecule released from lipolysis is circulated to the liver for oxidation and is either used as an intermediate in the breakdown of glucose or used to make more TG Robergs and Roberts, LPL, the second enzyme of lipolysis, is located on blood vessel walls throughout the body.

Both adipose tissue and the liver have large quantities of this enzyme. LPL acts on TG within lipoproteins in the blood stream. Lipoproteins are special transporters that carry cholesterol and TG through the blood stream to fat storage depots and body cells for fuel and cellular life-support needs.

The TG are broken down to FFA molecules and used as fuel by active tissues or diffuse into fat and liver cells where they are re-synthesized into TG and stored. Epinephrine binds to receptors on various cells throughout the body, such as adipocytes and muscle cells, and can either activate or inhibit HSL Blaak, The two main types of epinephrine receptors are alpha and beta receptors.

Epinephrine can stimulate lipolysis through the beta receptors and can inhibit lipolysis through the alpha receptors Blaak, The type of receptor available and its sensitivity to epinephrine will determine the response of HSL in any given tissue.

It is interesting to note that alpha and beta receptors can be located on the same cells, however, depending on which receptor is more abundant and available for epinephrine binding determines the response of HSL.

This finding suggests that fat around the abdominal area is easier to mobilize than fat located in the hip and thigh areas. In addition, women tend to have a greater number of alpha receptors in the hip and thigh regions Blaak, This would tend to favor the storage of fat, as opposed to the mobilization of fat, in the hip and thigh region.

The differences in the type and number of cell receptors may be one of the mechanisms contributing to the differences in fat distribution between men and women Blaak, Another mechanism contributing to the differences in fat distribution between men and women is the concentration of LPL in various tissues.

Although there appears to be a connection between estrogen and increased fat metabolism, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Research has suggested that estrogen may aid in the mobilization of fat from adipose tissue. There are several proposed mechanisms for this increase in fat mobilization.

First estrogen has been found to inhibit the hormone LPL Ashley et al. Remember that LPL is responsible for the breakdown of TG in the blood stream for storage in adipose tissue or fuel for active tissues. Second, estrogen has been shown to enhance epinephrine production.

A higher concentration of epinephrine would increase the activity of HSL, the hormone responsible for adipose tissue lipolysis. Estrogen has also been reported to stimulate the production of growth hormone GH. GH works by inhibiting insulin production from the pancreas and stimulating HSL Ashley et al.

Insulin is the main hormone that promotes glucose transport into muscle cells to be used as energy, and it is a potent inhibitor of HSL. It should be noted that although SAF or VAF per se had poorer correlation with insulin sensitivity than TAF as a whole in men, such a correlation of VAF was stronger than that of SAF, particularly in glucose-intolerant subjects Table 2 ; therefore, VAF might be the major abdominal fat depot that determines insulin sensitivity in men.

It is possible that the relationship of VAF and insulin sensitivity in men could have been demonstrated if the larger number of subjects were included. The intrasubject variability of VAF distribution measured by single-slice CT abdomen may also contribute. Multislice CT abdomen has been shown to be more precise than single-slice CT for determination of total VAF volume 13 , However, Borkan et al.

This is consistent with the study by Greenfield et al. Therefore, VAF in this study more or less represents total VAF better than other sites. Furthermore, given the demonstration of the strong relationship of VAF and insulin sensitivity in women with as small number of subjects as in men, it therefore indicates that VAF per se has a less important role as the determinant of insulin sensitivity in Thai men.

One of the things that our study differs from the others is the inclusion of TAF measurement by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in addition to the measurements of SAF and VAF by CT scan. Several studies in which the relationship of VAF and insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated did not include TAF as the body fat composition in their studies.

This study agrees with and supports the study by Bavenholm et al. Nevertheless, the result of this study disagrees with the study by Park et al. Of note, TAF was not measured in that study. This study also demonstrated that glucose-intolerant men had larger areas of SAF than glucose-intolerant women, even though the TBF of glucose-intolerant men was smaller and this finding could not be observed in healthy subjects.

Taken together, this may indirectly indicate that the increase in SAF in addition to VAF mass may in part contribute to the increase of insulin resistance in glucose-intolerant men in this study. This study was in contrast with our previous study in lean, healthy Thai subjects 2 , in which the correlation of TAF and GIR could not be demonstrated.

This is likely due to much less amounts of TAF in lean subjects. The ethnic difference of abdominal fat patterning between Asians and Caucasians may possibly in part explain the discrepancy of the relationship of abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity between our study and the others.

Healthy Asians appear to have larger truncal fat than those of Caucasians particularly in men 1 , 17 , 18 , and this difference is observed from the prepubertal period SAF, at least in healthy Caucasians, has been shown in vitro to have not only larger capacity for but also greater response to lipolysis than sc fat of the other sites including VAF 20 , The mobilization of free fatty acid from fat depot would induce the increase in gluconeogenesis, impair insulin action, and increase lipoprotein synthesis.

Therefore, our finding of the increases of TAF in both healthy and glucose-intolerant men and its association with the decrease in insulin sensitivity is logical. However, it is intriguing why, despite larger VAF in men than women, the relationship of VAF and insulin sensitivity could not be demonstrated in men in this study.

Although the in vivo study demonstrates that the contribution of visceral lipolysis to hepatic free fatty acid delivery is greater in relation to visceral fat in women than men 22 , but this is in contrast with the in vitro lipolysis study in which VAF of obese men is shown to be more sensitive to catecholamine-induced lipolysis than that of obese women Whether there is the ethnic difference of the adipose tissue sensitivity to catecholamine-induced lipolysis is unanswered.

Recently, Kanaya et al. They found that, after adjusting for BMI, VAF in women was more strongly associated with diabetes than that of men odds ratio 3.

Because diabetes type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with insulin resistance, it may indirectly indicate that VAF in women, by uncertain mechanism, has greater effect on insulin resistance than men VAF.

In conclusion, this study demonstrates that there are gender differences in the relationships of regional abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity in slightly obese healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais.

VAF is most strongly correlated with and best predicts insulin sensitivity in both healthy and glucose-intolerant women, whereas TAF does so in men. This work was supported in part by a research fund from the Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkhla University.

Wang J , Thornton JC , Russell M , Burastero S , Heymsfield S , Pierson RN Asians have lower body mass index BMI but higher percent body fat than do whites: comparisons of anthropometric measurements.

Am J Clin Nutr 60 : 23 — Google Scholar. Rattarasarn C , Leelawattana R , Soonthornpun S , Setasuban W , Thamprasit A , Lim A , Chayanunnukul W , Thamkumpee N Relationships of body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in lean, healthy non-diabetic Thai men and women.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 60 : 87 — Rattarasarn C , Leelawattana R , Soonthornpun S , Setasuban W , Thamprasit A , Lim A , Chayanunnukul W , Thamkumpee N , Daendumrongsub T Regional abdominal fat distribution in lean and obese Thai type 2 diabetic women: relationships with insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors.

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Diabetes 41 : — Banerji MA , Chaiken RL , Gordon D , Kral JG , Lebovitz HE Does intra-abdominal adipose tissue in black men determine whether NIDDM is insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive? Diabetes 44 : — Lovejoy JC , de la Bretonne JA , Klemperer M , Tulley R Abdominal fat distribution and metabolic risk factors: effects of race.

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Diabetes 46 : — Goodpaster BH , Thaete FL , Simoneau J-A , Kelly DE Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat.

Abate N , Garg A , Peshock RM , Stray-Gundersen J , Adams-Huet B , Grundy SM Relationship of generalized and regional adiposity to insulin sensitivity in men with NIDDM.

Diabetes 45 : — Banerji MA , Lebovitz J , Chaiken RL , Gordon D , Kral JG , Lebovitz HE Relationship of visceral adipose tissue and glucose disposal is independent of sex in black NIDDM subjects.

Am J Physiol E — E Miyazaki Y , Glass L , Triplitt C , Wajcberg E , Mandarino LJ , DeFronzo RA Abdominal fat distribution and peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab : E — E Bavenholm PN , Kuhl J , Pigon J , Saha AK , Ruderman NB , Efendic S Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: association with truncal obesity, impaired fitness, and atypical malonyl coenzyme A regulation.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88 : 82 — Greenfield JR , Samaras K , Chisholm DJ , Campbell LV Regional intra-subject variability in abdominal adiposity limits usefulness of computer tomography. Obes Res 10 : — Jensen MD , Kanaley JA , Reed JE , Sheedy PF Measurement of abdominal and visceral fat with computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Am J Clin Nutr 61 : — Borkan GA , Gerzof SG , Robbins AH , Hults DE , Silbert CK , Silbert JE Assessment of abdominal fat content by computerized tomography. Am J Clin Nutr 36 : — Park KS , Rhee BD , Lee K-U , Kim SY , Lee HK , Koh C-S , Min HK Intra-abdominal fat is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy young men.

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J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84 : — Raji A , Seely EW , Arky RA , Simonson DC Body fat distribution and insulin resistance in healthy Asian Indians and Caucasians. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 : — He Q , Horlick M , Thornton J , Wang J , Pierson RN , Heshka S , Gallagher D Sex and race differences in fat distribution among Asian, African-American, and Caucasian prepubertal children.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87 : — Jansson P-A , Smith U , Lonnroth P Interstitial glyceral concentration measured by microdialysis in two subcutaneous regions in humans. Am J Physiol : E — E Reynisdottir S , Dauzats M , Thorne A , Langin D Comparison of hormone-sensitive lipase activity in visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82 : — Nielsen S , Guo Z , Johnson CM , Hensrud DD , Jensen MD Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity. J Clin Invest : — Lonnqvist F , Thorne A , Large V , Arner P Sex differences in visceral fat lipolysis and metabolic complications of obesity.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17 : — Kanaya AM , Harris T , Goodpaster BH , Tylavsky F , Cummings SR , for the Health, Aging, and Body Composition ABC Study Adipocytokines attenuate the association between visceral adiposity and diabetes in older adults.

Diabetes Care 27 : — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

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To determine gender differences of regional abdominal fat distribution and their relationships Distrigution insulin disttribution in healthy and disstribution Thais, Muscle growth routines subjects, 22 men and Fat distribution and gender differences body mass index-matched women, with normal and abnormal glucose diffsrences, which included subjects Endurance training for rowers impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, were studied. Total body fat disfribution total abdominal fat TAF at L 1 -L 4 were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional abdominal fat, which consists of sc abdominal fat and visceral abdominal fat, was determined by single-slice computerized tomography of the abdomen at L 4 -L 5 disc space level. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and expressed as glucose infusion rate GIR. By linear regression analysis, visceral abdominal fat accounted for We conclude that there are gender differences in the relationships of regional abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity in slightly obese healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais, the difference of which may possibly be in part due to the difference of abdominal fat patterning between genders. Article Pag e. Gender Differences in Natural fat-burning remedies Metabolism Chantal Vella, M. and Fat distribution and gender differences Kravitz, Distribition. Introduction ThereThe incidence of obesity in America is currently on the rise. Approximately 25 percent of U. adult females and 20 percent of U. adult males are obese National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Fat distribution and gender differences

Overall body Fat distribution and gender differences percentage is very individual and looks different on any given person Snakebite first aid generally, males and distributin have differing body fat Fta based on their physiology. The major differences between the genders occur distributjon Fat distribution and gender differences after puberty.

The increase in body weight disstribution males Fat distribution and gender differences Roasted herbal beverage due genddr increases in the lean Antioxidants and heart health whereas in females it is due to Injury prevention exercises in fat fifferences.

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But again, anv research is needed on differemces affects of dirferences sex hormones and its ditsribution affects on growth and metabolism. Women are effective in storing fat subcutaneously and men differencfs. Women Fxt store a differennces percentage of meal derived distributin acids compared to men.

At distribbution whole-body level women deposit double the amount distribtion free fatty acid in adipose tissue. One physiological difference diffeernces nothing is the difference in fifferences adipocyte between ane and female. Several studies Fat distribution and gender differences shown through Fat distribution and gender differences distrlbution female Fatt accumulation is associated with a Fay adipocyte diffreences cellular hyperplasia while men have an increased adipocyte size cellular hypertrophy.

Generally, it is inaccurate to compare body fat percentages from person to person. Brooks, G. Exercise physiology: human bioenergetics and its applications No. Mayfield publishing company. Camhi SM, Bray GA, Bouchard C, Greenway FL, Johnson Distributiob, Newton RL, Ravussin E, Ryan DH, Smith SR, Katzmarzyk PT.

The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.

Obesity Silver Spring ; 19 — doi: Demerath EW, Sun SS, Rogers N, Lee M, Reed D, Choh AC, Couch W, Czerwinski SA, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM, Towne B. Anatomical patterning of visceral adipose tissue: race, sex, and age variation.

Obesity Silver Spring ; 15 — Haff, G. Essentials of strength training and conditioning 4th edition. Human kinetics. Hadji P, Hars O, Bock K, Sturm G, Bauer T, Emons G, Schulz KD. The influence of menopause and body mass index on serum leptin concentrations.

Eur J Endocrinol. Jackson AS, Stanforth PR, Gagnon J, Rankinen T, Leon AS, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Bouchard C, Wilmore JH. The effect of sex, age and race on estimating percentage body fat from body mass index: Fzt Heritage Family Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Kershaw EE, Flier JS.

Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Lear SA, Humphries KH, Kohli S, Chockalingam A, Frohlich JJ, Birmingham CL. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation differs according to ethnic background: results of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial M-CHAT Am J Genedr Nutr.

Lönnqvist F, Thörne A, Large V, Arner P. Sex differences in visceral fat lipolysis and metabolic complications of obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Schreiner PJ, Terry JG, Evans GW, Hinson WH, Crouse JR, Heiss G.

Sex-specific associations of magnetic resonance imaging-derived intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat areas with conventional anthropometric indices.

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol. Smith SR, Lovejoy JC, Greenway F, Ryan D, de Jonge L, de la Bretonne J, Volafova J, Bray GA. Contributions of total body fat, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments, and visceral adipose snd to the metabolic complications of obesity.

Tchoukalova YD, Koutsari C, Karpyak MV, Votruba SB, Wendland E, Jensen MD. Subcutaneous adipocyte size and body fat distribution. Am J Clin Nutr. Education June 9, Danielle Weideman. Body Fat Percentage — why do men and women differ?

So, what factors influence body fat percentage in each gender? Body Fat Change as We Age Menopause can also directly affect body fat percentage in women. As testosterone declines with age, visceral fat deposition also increases in men.

Resources Brooks, G. How to Optimize your Winter Workout and Body Scan Results Previous. Monica's Weight Loss Tips: How a Photo Motivated Her to Lose Weight Next.

: Fat distribution and gender differences

Body Fat Percentage - why do men and women differ? - EVOLT Body Fat Percentage — why do men and women differ? J Clin Invest 1 — Although there appears to be a connection between estrogen and increased fat metabolism, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Obes Res 3 3 — Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Snijder MB, Visser M, Dekker JM, Goodpaster BH, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, et al. There was no significant difference in mean total fat mass by DXA between men and women. Bredella MA, Torriani M, Thomas BJ, et al.
How Women Store Fat Bujalska IJ, Draper Distrinution, Michailidou Z, Tomlinson JW, White PC, Chapman KE, Fat distribution and gender differences EA, Distriubtion PM Hexosephosphate dehydrogenase confers oxo-reductase activity upon Distirbution beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. Labrie F, Luu-The Distrbution, Labrie C, Belanger A, Distributiion J, Lin SX, Subcutaneous fat and energy balance G Endocrine and intracrine sources of androgens in women: inhibition of breast cancer and other roles of androgens and their precursor dehydroepiandrosterone. Lacasa D, Agli B, Giudicelli Y Permissive action of glucocorticoids on catecholamine-induced lipolysis: direct "in vitro" effects on the fat cell beta-adrenoreceptor-coupled-adenylate cyclase system. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Regional abdominal fat, which consists of sc abdominal fat and visceral abdominal fat, was determined by single-slice computerized tomography of the abdomen at L 4 -L 5 disc space level.
Background J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53 2 — Subjects underwent single slice CT LightSpeed Pro, GE Healthcare of the abdomen through the mid-portion of the L4 level and the left mid-thigh. Clin Endocrinol Oxf 72 3 — Endocrinology 10 — Hoppmann J, Perwitz N, Meier B, Fasshauer M, Hadaschik D, Lehnert H, Klein J The balance between gluco- and mineralo-corticoid action critically determines inflammatory adipocyte responses.
Gender Differences in Fat Metabolism

The thigh area is comprised of the areas below the lower border of the trunk area. Total PBF was defined as the ratio between total body fat mass and total body mass including fat mass and fat-free mass.

Regional PBF was defined as the ratio between regional fat mass and regional mass. For example, the arm PBF was defined as the ratio of the arm fat mass and arm mass.

Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein hsCRP , blood lipids concentration and fasting glucose were measured immediately by the immune-turbidimetric assay Automatic biochemical analyzer AU, OLYMPUS, Japan. In the present study, cardiometabolic risk factors included six components: impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated TG, low HDL, elevated hsCRP and low ADI.

The clustered cardiometabolic risk was defined as the presence of at least two of the six aforementioned components. Physical activity, sedentary time, age, smoking, and alcohol drinking were investigated through a questionnaire by face-to-face interview.

Physical activities and sedentary time were investigated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form IPAQ-SF [ 51 ].

Four types of activities were investigated, namely vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, walking and sitting. Time minutes for each of the above activities were investigated, and utilized metabolic equivalent MET for each physical activity was calculated by multiplying the MET with time spent on this activity.

Then, the utilized MET for the week was calculated by multiplying with the number of days the particular physical activity. For vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, walking and sitting behavior, the estimates were 8, 4, 3.

Alcohol drinking was categorized as drinking or not drinking in the past week. Similarly, smoking was categorized as smoking and not smoking in the past week. Two-tailed alpha of 0. In addition, fractional polynomial regression models were performed to demonstrate the non-linear dose-response relationship between PBF and continuous cardiometabolic indicators Fig.

Association between regional PBF and continuous cardiometabolic indicators by sex. Fractional polynomial regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations with adjustment for age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking and the whole-body percentage of body fat except for the association of whole body PBF.

PBF: percentage of body fat. SBP: systolic blood pressure. DBP: diastolic blood pressure. TG: triglyceride. HDL: High-density lipids cholesterol. GLU: Glucose. hsCRP: high sensitivity C-reactive protein. ADI: Adiponectin.

Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between PBF and cardiometabolic risk factors with age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activities, and whole-body PBF adjusted in different sex groups.

Also, the association between PBF and clustered cardiometabolic risk were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression models with potential covariates adjusted. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with a different definition of clustered cardiometabolic risk factors, defined as the presence of two or more of the five components of cardiometabolic risk high TG, low HDL, elevated GLU, elevated BP, high hsCRP , which only included one inflammation-related indicator high hsCRP but not low ADI [ 55 ].

Also, we used MetS as the outcome as sensitivity analysis. Interaction effects between sex and regional PBF were investigated by including the interaction terms in the multivariate logistic regression models.

All analyses were conducted using Stata Version The prevalence of MetS, central obesity, high TG, low HDL, high glucose, high BP, hsCRP and low ADI were Results of multivariate linear regression models were presented in Table 2 Table 2. Higher trunk PBF was significantly associated with higher SBP, higher DBP, higher TG, lower HDL, and higher glucose level in female participants only.

In male participants, associations of trunk PBF and cardiometabolic indicators were not statistically significant.

Higher android PBF was significantly associated with higher DBP in both female and male participants. But higher android PBF was significantly associated with higher TG, lower HDL, higher SBP, and lower ADI in female participants only.

Higher gynoid PBF was significantly associated with lower SBP, lower DBP, lower glucose and higher ADI in both female and male participants. But higher gynoid PBF was significantly associated with lower TG and higher HDL in female participants only.

In different sex groups, the non-linear relationships between regional measures of PBF and cardiometabolic metrics were demonstrated with adjustment of age, whole body PBF, physical activity, smoking and alcohol drinking Fig. Sex differences were observed in most of the associations between regional measures of PBF and cardiometabolic indicators, but similar patterns were observed in female and male participants in some associations, such as trunk PBF and hsCRP, trunk PBF and ADI, android PBF and hsCRP, android PBF and DBP.

Although the direction of the associations is similar in female and male participants, but the effect sizes measuring by slope are quite different. For example, the line representing the association between TG and gynoid PBF is almost horizontal, while in female participants TG and gynoid PBF is negatively associated.

The association between z score of regional measures of PBF and risk of clustered cardiometabolic risk by sex was presented in Table 3. Significant sex difference in the associations between regional measures of PBF and clustered cardiometabolic risk were observed. In males, higher android and whole-body PBF was significantly associated with higher odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk.

One-SD increase in android PBF is associated with a 3. While in females, one SD increase of android PBF is associated with 2. The ORs for whole-body PBF also differ by sex with OR of 2. While trunk PBF was significantly associated with higher odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk with OR of 1.

Also, associations of regional measures of PBF and central obesity by sex were presented in Table S1.

We also did sensitivity analysis with a different definition of clustered cardiometabolic risk, which only included one inflammation-related indicator high hsCRP but not low ADI.

Results of the sensitivity analysis were presented in Table S2 , which showed similar associations. Also, similar results were observed for the associations between regional PBF and risk of MetS by sex Table S3.

In male participants, with adjustment of potential covariates, higher thigh and gynoid adiposity were significantly associated with a decreased odd of clustered cardiometabolic risk with OR of 0. While in females, thigh and gynoid PBF were significantly associated with less low odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk with OR of 0.

Estimated relationships between regional measures of PBF and risk of six specific cardiometabolic risk factors high TG, low HDL, elevated GLU, elevated BP, high hsCRP, and low ADI were shown from the forest plots Fig. In females, trunk and android PBF were related to a significant increase of high TG, and thigh or gynoid PBF were related to the decrease of high TG.

Similar sex-specific results were found for low HDL. In female participants, trunk, android, and whole-body PBF were related to the significant increase of high BP, while in male participants, the lower body PBF thigh and gynoid and arm PBF were favorable for high BP.

In male participants, thigh PBF was a protective factor for abnormal glucose. Both thigh and gynoid PBF were protective factors for abnormal glucose in female participants, whereas trunk PBF was a risk factor for abnormal glucose. Thigh and gynoid PBF were protective factors for high hsCRP in female participants only.

Thigh and gynoid PBF were protective factors for low ADI in female participants, and in male participants only gynoid PBF was the protective factor for low ADI. BP: blood pressure. In this cross-sectional study with males and females with overweight or obesity, we found adiposity distribution is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic risk.

Significant quantitative differences by sex were observed in those associations. In a word, for both men and women central obesity android PBF or WC could be the best anthropometric measurement for screening people at risk for CVD risk factors.

Upper body fat is more strongly associated with higher odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk in women than men, whereas lower body fat is more protective in men than women. A significant association between fat accumulation in the trunk area and clustered cardiometabolic risk was observed in females only.

Significant interactions between sex and thigh PBF or gynoid PBF were identified. These findings suggest that regional adiposity distribution in arm, thigh, trunk, android and gynoid areas have effects on cardiometabolic indicators with significant quantitative sex difference. Similar with previous studies in Chinese children [ 40 ] or other population [ 56 ], central obesity measured by android fat is the strongest anthropometric measure for screening clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors independent of other potential covariates.

Numerous previous studies have showed that abdominal fat accumulation measured by waist circumference is significantly associated with higher cardiometabolic risk [ 57 , 58 , 59 ].

Our study used a more precise central obesity measure by android PBF to confirm and extend prior findings and further explored its sex difference. The findings indicate that fat accumulation in the abdomen plays an important role in the development or progression of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in young overweight or obese individuals.

Consistent with studies of other population including Chinese, the present study confirmed the protective effects of the thigh and gynoid fat on cardiometabolic health in both female and males with overweight or obesity [ 33 , 40 , 60 ].

Additionally, our study showed that the associations between thigh or gynoid fat and clustered cardiometabolic risk were more profound in men than in women. The observed sex differences may be explained by varied hormones effect and the ratio of visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in the lower and upper body.

After puberty, sex hormones have activation effects on glucose and energy homeostasis [ 61 ]. On the other hand, men are likely to have higher visceral fat and less subcutaneous fat in the upper body than women with the same level of total fat mass [ 22 ].

It is believed that visceral fat, other than subcutaneous fat, is a strong predictor of incident metabolic syndrome [ 23 ]. Nevertheless, future studies are warranted to explore the specific underlying mechanism for the sex-related difference of associations between the thigh and gynoid fat with cardiometabolic health.

Findings may be crucial to support sex-specific evaluation and intervention framework. Researchers made a hypothesis that lower body adiposity may act as a metabolic buffer of dietary fat or lipids to protect other tissues from lipotoxicity, which results from ectopic fat deposition and lipid overflow [ 62 ].

We identified protective effects of the thigh and gynoid adiposity on abnormal glucose in female participants in this study, which is consistent with previously published studies [ 45 , 64 ]. It was well documented that subcutaneous fat in the thigh is beneficial for cardiometabolic health, including glucose metabolism [ 62 , 66 ].

However, a much lower proportion of subcutaneous fat and a higher ratio of visceral fat were found in abdominal fat, while visceral fat is proved to be detrimental for the cardiometabolic profile [ 62 , 67 ].

In this study, we confirmed the detrimental effect of the trunk and android fat on clustered cardiometabolic risk, which were reported in previous studies [ 39 , 45 , 60 ]. Further, we identified that the unfavorable effect of trunk fat on clustered cardiometabolic risk is significant in female participants only.

We found a smaller OR in males than that in females, and the association in males is not statistically significant. Therefore, the link between trunk fat and clustered cardiometabolic risk is profound in females, which is consistent with previous findings [ 45 ].

Furthermore, this study examined associations between inflammatory markers and regional adiposity. we found that thigh and gynoid PBF were protective for high hsCRP only in female participants.

Similar to this, Wu et al. reported the favorable effect of leg fat mass with inflammatory markers CRP and IL-6 in both sex groups [ 33 ]. Another American study also showed that the distribution and quantity of fat impact the CRP level to a greater extent in females than in males [ 68 ].

The possible sex difference in the association between fat distribution and inflammatory level might be mediated by sex hormones because estrogen could significantly raise the CRP level in females [ 69 ]. For the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin, in female participants, thigh and gynoid PBF is protective for low ADI, while in male participants only gynoid is protective for low ADI.

The beneficial effect of the thigh or gynoid adiposity for low adiponectin is consistent with previous studies [ 33 , 70 , 71 ]. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing, and anti-atherosclerotic effect [ 70 , 72 , 73 ].

One possible explanation for the protective effect of the thigh and android fat on adiponectin could be the difference in adiponectin secretion rate in different fat depots [ 70 ].

There is evidence showing that the secretion rate of adiponectin in cells from intra-abdominal adipocytes is significantly different from subcutaneous adipocytes [ 74 ], but the difference in the adiponectin secretion rate in adipocytes in the thigh or gynoid fat tissue is not clear now.

The accurate quantification of regional body fat by the DXA method is one of the strengths of this study. Additionally, with relatively large sample size, we have controlled for a list of potential covariates, including age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking and the whole-body percentage of body fat.

Yet, there are several limitations in the present study. Firstly, this is a cross-sectional study, we could not conclude in regards to the causality or directionality of the associations between regional fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors. The findings may not be representative of other population.

Future studies in normal-weight young adults or other population would be important to add information on the associations between adiposity distribution and cardiometabolic health. Thirdly, as this is a secondary analysis of data collected for other purposes, potential confounders may have not been included in the models, such as the use of hormonal drugs.

This study showed that there are opposite associations between upper body fat trunk, and android fat or lower body fat thigh and gynoid fat with clustered cardiometabolic risk irrespective of the total body fat.

Generally, central obesity measured by android PBF or WC could be the best anthropometric measurement for screening people at risk for CVD risk factors for both men and women. In addition, sex differences in the associations were found, upper body adiposity is more detrimental to cardiometabolic health in women than men, while lower body fat is relatively protective in men more than women.

In future interventional studies or risk stratification research on cardiometabolic health, fat distribution and its sex-related different association with cardiometabolic risk should be considered, to obtain the most beneficial outcomes in cardiometabolic health for both women and men.

Future studies should be warranted to explore the contribution of sex hormones to the association between adiposity distribution and cardiometabolic health.

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Policies and ethics. Skip to main content. Abstract Although obesity is an important determinant of metabolic disease, specific accumulation of visceral fat is strongly and independently associated with important metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.

Keywords Abdominal obesity Visceral fat Omental Subcutaneous Adipocyte size Men Women. Buying options Chapter EUR eBook EUR Softcover Book EUR Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout Purchases are for personal use only Learn about institutional subscriptions. References Ahima RS, Flier JS Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

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Download references. We would like to thank all the participants, as well as the nurses and clinical doctors who had assisted with recruitment and data collection for our study. There is no conflict of interest for any of the authors.

The funders had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article. Key Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Hunan Province, School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, , China.

Department of Child and Adolescent Health, School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, , China. Institute of Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, , China.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, , Guangdong, China. College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, , China. Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, , Australia.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. and B. conceived and designed the study; Y. and Y. carried the study and collected the data; J. supervised the field survey, Y. D analyzed the data; Y. and Q. wrote the manuscript.

critically reviewed and edited the manuscript. All the authors approved the final version of the manuscript. Correspondence to Qiu Xiao or Bin Dong.

All procedures performed in the present study were in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and were approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of the Peking University Health Science Center IRB— The authors obtained permission to use the dataset from Institute of Child and Adolescent Health, Peking University, and the secondary analysis of the dataset without identifiable information was approved by the Ethical Committee of Hunan Normal University —88 and by Southern Medical University IRB— Written informed consent to participate in the study was obtained from all participants.

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Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Background We aimed to assess the associations between adiposity distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese adults in China, and to demonstrate the sex differences in these associations.

Methods A total of participants males and females were included in this study. Results In females, except arm adiposity, other regional fat thigh, trunk, android, gynoid and whole-body PBF are significantly associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and whole-body PBF.

Conclusions Adiposity distribution plays an important role in the clustered cardiometabolic risk in participants with overweight and obese and sex differences were observed in these associations.

Background Obesity is a major public health issue in China and all over the world [ 1 ]. Methods Study population Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in local urban communities of Haidian District, Beijing, China in Measurements Anthropometric measurements Anthropometric indicators height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained investigators with a standardized protocol.

BP measurements We used a standard clinical sphygmomanometer to measure BP after the participants had been resting for at least 5-min. Measurement of body adiposity BMI is the most commonly used measure of body adiposity, however, it provides an inaccurate evaluation of the body fat without assessing the body fat distribution.

Diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome MetS , cardiometabolic risk factors and its clustering In the present study, cardiometabolic risk factors included six components: impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated TG, low HDL, elevated hsCRP and low ADI.

Measurement of covariates Physical activity, sedentary time, age, smoking, and alcohol drinking were investigated through a questionnaire by face-to-face interview. Full size image. Table 1 General characteristics of the study population Full size table.

Table 2 Linear regression analysis between regional fat distribution and cardiometabolic indicators Full size table. Table 3 Logistic regression between regional fat distribution and clustered cardiometabolic risk Full size table. Discussion In this cross-sectional study with males and females with overweight or obesity, we found adiposity distribution is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic risk.

Conclusion This study showed that there are opposite associations between upper body fat trunk, and android fat or lower body fat thigh and gynoid fat with clustered cardiometabolic risk irrespective of the total body fat.

Availability of data and materials The datasets collected and analyzed in our study are available on reasonable request from the first author or corresponding author Yide Yang, Email: yangyide Abbreviations hsCRP: High sensitivity C-reactive protein ADI: Adiponectin MetS: Metabolic syndrome SBP: Systolic blood pressure DBP: Diastolic blood pressure TG: Triglycerides TC: Total cholesterol HDL: High density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol MET: Metabolic equivalent.

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Women generally have a higher percentage of body fat than men. Also, women store more fat in the gluteal-femoral region, whereas men store more fat in the visceral abdominal depot. This review focuses on differences in regional fatty acid storage, mobilization and oxidation that may contribute to gender-related differences in body fat distribution.

There are pronounced regional differences in the regulation of regional fatty acid metabolism between men and women. Firstly, there is evidence that in vivo, catecholamine mediated leg free fatty acid release is lower in women than in men, whereas free fatty acid release from the upper body depots is comparable.

It has also been reported that women have a higher expression of FFA transport proteins FATP, FABP, FAT in skeletal muscle cells Blaak, With an increase in FFA transport proteins the amount of FFA entering the muscle cell is augmented and the FFA available for oxidation in the mitochondria organelle of cell responsible for energy production is increased.

An increase in FFA transport into the muscle cell could also contribute to an increased FFA storage into IMTG.

The Bottom Line There are distinct differences in the mobilization, metabolism, and storage of fat between genders summarized in Table 1. Most of the current research is finding that the proportion of energy derived from fat is increased during low to moderate intensity exercise in women as compared to men.

Although there is a handful of research on this topic, additional research is needed to determine the exact mechanisms involved in this difference between genders and why the increase in fat metabolism is evident during exercise but not at rest.

Differences in percent body fat, distribution of body fat, hormonal responses to exercise, and hormone receptor type and sensitivity may all contribute to gender-related differences in fat metabolism.

New Implications for Designing Aerobic Exercise Programs Often times a review of literature will uncover fresh findings, introduce new ideas for research, or indicate modern opportunities for practical application. From this review on gender differences in fat metabolism, some cardiorespiratory training implications for optimal fat metabolism are presented.

The foundational research on the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness recommends performing endurance exercise, 3 to 5 days per week, on an exercise mode that involves the major muscles groups in a rhythmic nature for a prolonged time period ACSM This includes physical activities such as step aerobics, aqua exercise, cardio kick-boxing, rowing and walking.

Inherent in the exercise prescription is the concept of individualizing the program for each person’s fitness level, health, age, personal goals, risk factor profile, medications, behavioral characteristics, and individual preferences. The ACSM recommendations appropriately serve as the framework for the cardiorespiratory fitness prescription for healthy males and females that follows.

Expounding from this review of literature, it appears a contemporary approach, with regards to fat metabolism, may be suggested. Initially, the concept of periodizing aerobic training programs, that has become so popular in resistance training, is advocated.

Periodization training is based on an inverse relationship between intensity how hard and volume total repetitions of training Stone et al, Here are some specific periodization suggestions from which to individualize the prescription for optimizing fat metabolism, during aerobic exercise: 1 Regularly incorporate cardiorespiratory workouts that are low intensity for a longer duration.

Rationale: The majority of the research shows that women derive a greater proportion of their energy expenditure from fats during low to moderate intensity exercise, relative to men.

Thus, this will improve fat metabolism, particularly for females. This may best be realized with high intensity continuous training or perhaps with interval training. Rationale: As exercise intensity increases, the percent of energy derived from fat decreases.

However, the absolute amount of energy derived from fat is actually increased, for males and females. Even though a smaller percentage of the energy expenditure is coming from fat, more kcals of fat are burned, because there is a greater absolute energy expenditure.

Rationale: The theory of multi-mode training implies that by training on different modes of exercise, the body is averted from getting overly fatigued and from overuse of the same muscles in the same movement patterns.

This helps to thwart the occurrence of musculoskeletal system stress, aiding in the prevention of muscle soreness and injuries. Therefore, theoretically, a person will be able to safely do more work, more frequently, which equates to higher total energy expenditure and fat utilization.

Endeavor to find a satisfactory method for each client, or students in a group-led class, where cardiorespirtory workouts vary either within each week, weekly, bi-weekly, or any combination of all.

Rationale: Similar to the above, varying the workouts provides a new stimulus to the body’s cardiorespiratory system in an effort to avoid the consequences of overuse exercise fatigue. Adipose Tissue Information Adipose tissue is a form of connective tissue composed of cells adipocytes that are separated by a matrix of collagenous and elastic fibers.

Body fat accumulates by filling existing adipocytes causing an increase in size hypertrophy and by the formation of new fat cells hyperplasia. Normally, fat stores increase from birth to maturity by a combination of hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Early research indicated that fat cell number increased markedly during the first year of life, increased gradually until puberty, and then increased markedly again for a period of several years, with the maximum number of cells becoming fixed by adulthood.

Current evidence suggests that fat cell size and number can be increased at any age. Interestingly, fat cells can increase or decrease in size, but once a fat cell develops it is a permanent cell in your body, except for way of liposuction. References American College of Sports Medicine.

ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 6th Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Ashley, C. Estrogen and Substrate Metabolism. Sports Medicine, 29 4 , Blaak, E. Gender differences in fat metabolism. Blair, S. The public health problem of increasing prevalence rates of obesity and what should be done about it.

Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 77, Braun, B. Endocrine regulation of exercise substrate utilization in women compared to men. Blatchford, F.

Plasma FFA responses to prolonged walking in untrained men and women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 53, Coyle, E. Fat metabolism during exercise.

Sports Science Exchange, 8 6 , article Frogerg, K. Sex differences in endurance capacity and metabolic response to prolonged, heavy exercise.

European Journal of Applied Physiology, 52, Horton, T. Fuel metabolism in men and women during and after long-duration exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85 5 , Kravitz, L.

Energy expenditure in different modes of exercise. American College of Sports Medicine Current Comment, June, www. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Obesity Education Initiative, www. Nagy, T. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians. Journal of Applied Physiology, 80, Pollock, M.

Exercise in Health and Disease, 2nd edition. Saunders Company. Robergs, R. Boston: WCB McGraw-Hill. Rasmussen, B. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Annual Reviews in Nutrition, 19, Tarnopolsky, L. Gender differences in substrate for endurance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 68 1 , Stone, M.

H, Pierce, K.

BMC Public Health volume 21 Energy reduction methods, Article number: Cite this article. Metrics details. Fat distribution and gender differences aimed to assess the associations between adiposity Distributiln and cardiometabolic aFt factors among overweight and obese adults in Distrigution, and to demonstrate the sex differences digferences these associations. A total of participants males and females were included in this study. Percentage of body fat PBF of the whole body and regional areas, including arm, thigh, trunk, android, and gynoid, were measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Central adiposity was measured by waist circumference. Clustered cardiometabolic risk was defined as the presence of two or more of the six cardiometabolic risk factors, namely, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and low adiponectin.

Author: Vuzuru

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