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Caloric restriction and nutrient intake

caloric restriction and nutrient intake

Any caloric restriction and nutrient intake program nugrient have both short-term and long-term calodic. Many religions incorporate fasting for both spiritual and Lifestyle changes for anxiety benefits [ 34 ccaloric, 35 restroction. However, the Athletic performance research of exercise to a CR regimen does not appear to affect an animal's maximal life span, the outcome of most interest to most investigators [ 22 ]. CAS PubMed Google Scholar McCarty MF, Barroso-Aranda J, Contreras F: The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

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The aim of this study was to calorif the ad of every-other-day feeding CR interventions on the body Lifestyle changes for anxiety and physical performance parameters during maximal nutrietn tests of claoric athletes. We also calorix the possible impact of this CR intervention on kntake dietary deficiencies czloric micronutrients and adn fatty acids.

A restrkction one-centre study was performed on caloric restriction and nutrient intake 1 dropout healthy males. Restridtion before and after the every-other-day butrient CR nutriejt, the Resrtiction took calorid maximal exercise stress test. For each participant, one blood sample was obtained claoric the beginning restrictuon another at end of the inake fasting intervention at basal conditions and 30 min after acute maximal exercise.

All of the participants were informed of the purpose and demands of the study before providing their written consent to participate. All athletes also take part in a previous nutritional intervention study performed in order to evaluate the effects of the energy-balanced diet or dietary supplementation with functional beverages for one month training on physical performance of the athletes [ 9 ].

Every participant was interviewed on their dietary, living, and training habits. Dietary habits were assessed using a 7-day dietary record which tracked all foods and fluids consumed, portion sizes, how foods were prepared, and how consumption habits were distributed throughout the day. Athletes VO 2max at the exhaustion was Adherence to the nutritional intervention program was assessed using a 7-day dietary record during the last week of the intervention.

All foods and fluids consumed, portion sizes, how foods were prepared, and how consumption habits were distributed throughout the day were recorded. From this information a dietary analysis was performed using a computer program based on CESNID food composition Tables [ 11 ].

Cutoffs and references were established according previously published models [ 121314 ]. Total body water content was measures by electric impedance using a two frequencies method previously described [ 151617 ].

Each subject performed an incremental maximal test until exhaustion on a motorized treadmill EG2, Vitoria, Spain in order to determine his maximal oxygen consumption VO2max using a computerized metabolic chart Master Screen CPX,Erich Jaeger, Wuerzburg, Germany. The protocol for the exercise test followed is previously described [ 9 ].

Each participant performed a maximal exercise test on a treadmill after fasting overnight at the beginning and again at the end of the nutritional intervention. Venous blood samples were obtained in basal and 30 min after each exercise test from the antecubital vein of participants with vacutainers containing EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as anticoagulant 6 mL to obtain plasma and also to purify erythrocytes following an adaptation of the method described elsewhere [ 20 ].

Others venous blood samples were obtained to determine blood cells counts and plasma markers of nutritional status. Erythrocytes counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets counts, glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, calcium, cholesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, iron, transferrin, transferrin iron, transferrin saturation index, ferritin, vitamin D, the enzymes activities of glutamate, pyruvate transaminase, oxaloacetate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, creatine kinase were determined by standardized clinical analytical methods.

Blood lactate was measured using a microsample of blood 20 μL was taken from the ear while athletes were performing stress test. Lange®, Berlin, Germany. MDA levels as marker of lipopeoxidative damage were analyzed using a method previously described [ 21 ].

Non-esterified heptadecanoic acid Nu-Chek Prep, Mn in hexane was then added as an internal standard and it also containing 0. A methyl ester peaks were identified through mass spectra and by comparing the elution pattern and relative retention times of FA methyl esters.

The results are expressed in relative amounts percentage molar of total FAs. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS v. All athletes followed an every-other-day feeding schedule in order to induce a dietary CR.

The reduced energy intake resulted in a reduction of daily carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intakes, each being affected differently. In spite of the different levels of reduction in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intakes, their contribution to total energy intake during the CR intervention was similar to their contribution in the original unrestricted diet.

The contribution of animal and vegetable proteins to total protein intake during the CR intervention was maintained at the original unrestricted diet levels; similarly, the contribution of SFA and PUFA to total lipid intake during the CR intervention was maintained, but the MUFA component was significantly higher than it was in the original unrestricted diet.

The CR diet created a situation of low micronutrient and vitamin intake, which, if maintained over the long term, could compromise athletic performance. We cannot plan a CR diet that would lead to a micronutrient deficiency without providing specific dietary supplementation that would rectify micronutrient intake.

The CR intervention significantly reduced body weight 4. The percentage of weight reduction in the arms 3. Body fat mass was reduced by The main site of fat mass loss was in the trunk The legs were the main area of lean body mass loss 3. The bone mineral content in the body, legs, and arms, maintained initial values, but it significantly decreased 0.

CR also significantly changed intracellular and extracellular water contents. No significant changes attributable to the CR were observed in parameters related to iron metabolism, such as erythrocyte counts, hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, plasma iron, ferritin, bilirubin, transferrin saturation, or transferrin iron, although the percentage of transferrin slightly decreased by about 3.

The six weeks of CR did not cause tissue damage, considering that serum activities of GPT, GOT, GGT, and Creatin kinase were maintained. The CR did not influence plasma glucose levels or nitrogen metabolism markers, such as plasmatic urea, creatinine, or urate levels.

Lipid metabolism was influenced by the CR. Circulating levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly lower after the six-week period compared to previous levels, but HDLs and LDLs maintained their pre-CR values.

Calcium remained level, but vitamin D increased in plasmatic values after the six weeks of CR. In addition, the blood lactate levels during each running period were significantly lower after six weeks of CR when compared to pre-CR levels.

The CR ameliorated the onset of the anaerobic phase of exercise with respect pre-intervention values. In this sense, the perception of exertion, as indicated by the Borg index, also decreased after the CR when compared to values observed previously, under an unrestricted diet Fig.

Effects of Caloric Restriction on energy expenditure and on energy expenditure rate. a Represents energy expenditure. b Represents energy expenditure per meter. Effects of caloric restriction on lactate blood levels and on Borg test.

a Represents lactate blood concentration. b Represents Borg test results. Previous results obtained in a similar study provide evidence of the null effects of one month of training on performance parameters determined during a maximal exercise test on athletes that consumed well-balanced diets or even supplemented their diets with a functional beverage [ 9 ].

In addition, the CR via every-other-day fasting allowed for body weight to be controlled, as mainly body fat was lost, although some lean mass loss was also observed.

The loss of lean body mass during weight reduction is considered a negative effect that could compromise performance [ 25 ]. Lean body mass loss during the CR via intermittent partial fasting could probably be avoided by increasing protein intake to around 2.

Regardless of how they do it, athletes must aim to preserve lean body mass during weight reduction [ 2425 ]. The CR led to a micronutrient and vitamin intake below RDAs for athletes, which could have compromised their exercise performance. In this sense, CR intervention programs might consider supplementing diets with vitamins and micronutrients, such as iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and vitamins A and C.

However, blood markers of nutritional status in athletes, such as those related to iron metabolism, calcium and vitamin D, glucose, markers of nitrogen handling, or those related to tissue damage, maintained the same levels before and after the intervention.

This result has been observed in other trials with hypocaloric diets [ 24 ]. The low fat intake associated with the CR could alter the availability of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to not meeting daily requirements. The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte is a good marker for assessing the efficacy of nutritional intervention trials in incorporating dietary fatty acids [ 21 ].

The presence of different fatty acids in the diet and lifestyle factors, such as exercise and obesity, influence the incorporation of the acids into different tissues and erythrocyte membranes [ 21 ]; the erythrocyte content of the omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids were maintained or even increased after the six weeks of CR.

The possible lack of fatty acid availability during six-week CR did not affect fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes.

Additionally, the CR lessened oxidative damage in plasma lipids. It has been pointed out that a CR decreases mitochondrial electron flow as well as proton leaks in mammalian cells, and attenuates muscle damage caused by intracellular reactive oxygen species [ 427 ].

We actually provide evidence that a CR reduces oxidative damage in circulating lipids and blood vessels along with reducing circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

The CR intervention significantly reduced body, trunk, arm, and leg weights; it mainly reduced body fat mass, but a small yet significant reduction in lean body mass was also observed.

: Caloric restriction and nutrient intake

Background Instead, we rely on biomarkers developed to measure the pace and progress of biological aging over the duration of the study. Adherence to the nutritional intervention program was assessed using a 7-day dietary record during the last week of the intervention. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Johnson JB, Summer W, Cutler RG, Martin B, Hyun DH, Dixit VD, Pearson M, Nassar M, Telljohann R, Maudsley S, Carlson O, John S, Laub DR, Mattson MP: Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Few human ADF studies incorporate a fasting period lasting longer than 20 weeks due to ethical and logistical i. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition. From this information a dietary analysis was performed using a computer program based on CESNID food composition Tables [ 11 ]. By Berkeley Lovelace Jr.
Calorie restriction and fasting diets: What do we know? | National Institute on Aging

We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids.

Athletes performed a maximal exercise stress test both before and after the caloric restriction period. Blood samples were taken before and after the caloric restriction at basal conditions and 30 min post-exercise.

No effects were observed in blood parameters related to iron metabolism and tissue damage, glucose levels, lipid profiles, or erythrocyte fatty acid composition.

In addition, oxidative damage markers decreased after the nutritional intervention. The caloric restriction intervention significantly reduced body weight and trunk, arm, and leg weights; it also caused a decrease in fat and lean body mass, the energy expenditure rate when performing a maximal exercise stress test, and the energy cost to run one meter at various exercise intensities.

Furthermore, the intervention ameliorated the onset of the anaerobic phase of exercise. The project was registered at ClinicalTrials. gov NCT Reducing energy intake while maintaining nutrition, so-called caloric restriction CR , is one of the most robust interventions for increasing lifespan in a variety of species of insects and rodents, as well as in Rhesus monkeys and for inhibiting and delaying the onset of most age-related diseases [ 1 ].

The beneficial effects of CR on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems; on insulin sensitivity; on resistance to various types of stress including heat, oxidative, and metabolic stresses; on enhanced immune function; and on the regulation of body weight has been evidenced to contribute to increasing health span [ 2 ].

Energy restriction is accompanied by changes in circulating hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, and energy expenditure that serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate weight loss, and promote weight regain [ 3 ]. CR induces mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetic efficiency [ 4 ], reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential, and generates less reactive oxygen species, while mitochondria are still able to maintain their critical ATP production [ 4 ].

CR is associated with improving physical fitness in rodents with respect to ad libitum-fed mice [ 5 ]. Optimal body composition provides a competitive advantage in a variety of sports.

Athletes aiming to improve their strength-to-mass ratio and locomotor efficiency commonly have to reduce their weight [ 3 ]. The inclusion of an exercise component in weight loss programs for overweight and obese subjects is now standard [ 6 ].

A CR intervention could be useful for athletes looking to control their body weight and also to enhance their physical performance. Evidence of the ability of CR to enhance physical performance in athletes is scarce [ 7 ], although there are many studies on the use of CR diets for weight reduction in obese men and women [ 8 ].

CR in humans has been carried out in a variety of ways. It has been done through a reduced consumption ration and a nutrition plan adjusted to balanced-diet guidelines. Intermittent fasting IF , that is, diets with reduced meal frequencies such as every-other-day fasting or every-other-day feeding, can have similar effects on life span and health as they provide a reduction in energy intake while maintaining nutrition [ 2 ]; it could be easier for athletes who train daily to adhere to this kind of diet rather than CR diets based solely on low daily caloric intakes.

Restricting dietary energy intake could influence the total intake of essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and essential amino acids, but principally essential fatty acids, rather than negatively influencing the physical performance and health of athletes.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of every-other-day feeding CR interventions on the body composition and physical performance parameters during maximal exercise tests of well-trained athletes.

We also estimate the possible impact of this CR intervention on the dietary deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. A simple one-centre study was performed on 12 1 dropout healthy males. Both before and after the every-other-day fasting CR period, the participants took a maximal exercise stress test.

For each participant, one blood sample was obtained at the beginning and another at end of the every-other-day fasting intervention at basal conditions and 30 min after acute maximal exercise.

All of the participants were informed of the purpose and demands of the study before providing their written consent to participate. All athletes also take part in a previous nutritional intervention study performed in order to evaluate the effects of the energy-balanced diet or dietary supplementation with functional beverages for one month training on physical performance of the athletes [ 9 ].

Every participant was interviewed on their dietary, living, and training habits. Dietary habits were assessed using a 7-day dietary record which tracked all foods and fluids consumed, portion sizes, how foods were prepared, and how consumption habits were distributed throughout the day.

Athletes VO 2max at the exhaustion was Adherence to the nutritional intervention program was assessed using a 7-day dietary record during the last week of the intervention. All foods and fluids consumed, portion sizes, how foods were prepared, and how consumption habits were distributed throughout the day were recorded.

From this information a dietary analysis was performed using a computer program based on CESNID food composition Tables [ 11 ]. Cutoffs and references were established according previously published models [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. Total body water content was measures by electric impedance using a two frequencies method previously described [ 15 , 16 , 17 ].

Each subject performed an incremental maximal test until exhaustion on a motorized treadmill EG2, Vitoria, Spain in order to determine his maximal oxygen consumption VO2max using a computerized metabolic chart Master Screen CPX,Erich Jaeger, Wuerzburg, Germany. The protocol for the exercise test followed is previously described [ 9 ].

Each participant performed a maximal exercise test on a treadmill after fasting overnight at the beginning and again at the end of the nutritional intervention.

Venous blood samples were obtained in basal and 30 min after each exercise test from the antecubital vein of participants with vacutainers containing EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as anticoagulant 6 mL to obtain plasma and also to purify erythrocytes following an adaptation of the method described elsewhere [ 20 ].

Others venous blood samples were obtained to determine blood cells counts and plasma markers of nutritional status. Erythrocytes counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets counts, glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, calcium, cholesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, iron, transferrin, transferrin iron, transferrin saturation index, ferritin, vitamin D, the enzymes activities of glutamate, pyruvate transaminase, oxaloacetate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, creatine kinase were determined by standardized clinical analytical methods.

Blood lactate was measured using a microsample of blood 20 μL was taken from the ear while athletes were performing stress test. Lange®, Berlin, Germany. MDA levels as marker of lipopeoxidative damage were analyzed using a method previously described [ 21 ].

Non-esterified heptadecanoic acid Nu-Chek Prep, Mn in hexane was then added as an internal standard and it also containing 0. A methyl ester peaks were identified through mass spectra and by comparing the elution pattern and relative retention times of FA methyl esters.

The results are expressed in relative amounts percentage molar of total FAs. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS v. All athletes followed an every-other-day feeding schedule in order to induce a dietary CR.

The reduced energy intake resulted in a reduction of daily carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intakes, each being affected differently. In spite of the different levels of reduction in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intakes, their contribution to total energy intake during the CR intervention was similar to their contribution in the original unrestricted diet.

The contribution of animal and vegetable proteins to total protein intake during the CR intervention was maintained at the original unrestricted diet levels; similarly, the contribution of SFA and PUFA to total lipid intake during the CR intervention was maintained, but the MUFA component was significantly higher than it was in the original unrestricted diet.

The CR diet created a situation of low micronutrient and vitamin intake, which, if maintained over the long term, could compromise athletic performance.

We cannot plan a CR diet that would lead to a micronutrient deficiency without providing specific dietary supplementation that would rectify micronutrient intake. The CR intervention significantly reduced body weight 4. The percentage of weight reduction in the arms 3. Body fat mass was reduced by The main site of fat mass loss was in the trunk The legs were the main area of lean body mass loss 3.

The bone mineral content in the body, legs, and arms, maintained initial values, but it significantly decreased 0. CR also significantly changed intracellular and extracellular water contents. No significant changes attributable to the CR were observed in parameters related to iron metabolism, such as erythrocyte counts, hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, plasma iron, ferritin, bilirubin, transferrin saturation, or transferrin iron, although the percentage of transferrin slightly decreased by about 3.

The six weeks of CR did not cause tissue damage, considering that serum activities of GPT, GOT, GGT, and Creatin kinase were maintained. The CR did not influence plasma glucose levels or nitrogen metabolism markers, such as plasmatic urea, creatinine, or urate levels.

Lipid metabolism was influenced by the CR. Circulating levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly lower after the six-week period compared to previous levels, but HDLs and LDLs maintained their pre-CR values.

Calcium remained level, but vitamin D increased in plasmatic values after the six weeks of CR. In addition, the blood lactate levels during each running period were significantly lower after six weeks of CR when compared to pre-CR levels. The CR ameliorated the onset of the anaerobic phase of exercise with respect pre-intervention values.

In this sense, the perception of exertion, as indicated by the Borg index, also decreased after the CR when compared to values observed previously, under an unrestricted diet Fig. Effects of Caloric Restriction on energy expenditure and on energy expenditure rate.

a Represents energy expenditure. b Represents energy expenditure per meter. Effects of caloric restriction on lactate blood levels and on Borg test. a Represents lactate blood concentration. b Represents Borg test results. Previous results obtained in a similar study provide evidence of the null effects of one month of training on performance parameters determined during a maximal exercise test on athletes that consumed well-balanced diets or even supplemented their diets with a functional beverage [ 9 ].

In addition, the CR via every-other-day fasting allowed for body weight to be controlled, as mainly body fat was lost, although some lean mass loss was also observed. The loss of lean body mass during weight reduction is considered a negative effect that could compromise performance [ 25 ].

Lean body mass loss during the CR via intermittent partial fasting could probably be avoided by increasing protein intake to around 2. Regardless of how they do it, athletes must aim to preserve lean body mass during weight reduction [ 24 , 25 ].

The CR led to a micronutrient and vitamin intake below RDAs for athletes, which could have compromised their exercise performance.

In this sense, CR intervention programs might consider supplementing diets with vitamins and micronutrients, such as iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and vitamins A and C. However, blood markers of nutritional status in athletes, such as those related to iron metabolism, calcium and vitamin D, glucose, markers of nitrogen handling, or those related to tissue damage, maintained the same levels before and after the intervention.

This result has been observed in other trials with hypocaloric diets [ 24 ]. The low fat intake associated with the CR could alter the availability of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to not meeting daily requirements.

The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte is a good marker for assessing the efficacy of nutritional intervention trials in incorporating dietary fatty acids [ 21 ]. The presence of different fatty acids in the diet and lifestyle factors, such as exercise and obesity, influence the incorporation of the acids into different tissues and erythrocyte membranes [ 21 ]; the erythrocyte content of the omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids were maintained or even increased after the six weeks of CR.

The possible lack of fatty acid availability during six-week CR did not affect fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes. Additionally, the CR lessened oxidative damage in plasma lipids. It has been pointed out that a CR decreases mitochondrial electron flow as well as proton leaks in mammalian cells, and attenuates muscle damage caused by intracellular reactive oxygen species [ 4 , 27 ].

We actually provide evidence that a CR reduces oxidative damage in circulating lipids and blood vessels along with reducing circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The CR intervention significantly reduced body, trunk, arm, and leg weights; it mainly reduced body fat mass, but a small yet significant reduction in lean body mass was also observed.

Reducing body weight is a goal for many athletes [ 25 ]. Either rapid or gradual body weight reduction techniques have been used to control body weight in athletes with varied results on physical performance.

Aerobic endurance capacity decreases after rapid body weight reduction. It also causes detrimental effects in a min treadmill time-trial session in temperate conditions [ 29 ]; affects health, muscle performance, and energy; and alters perceived exertion and dynamic postural control [ 30 ].

Severe CR also results in a large reduction in body mass that appears to be mostly explained by a rapid reduction in body water stores [ 31 ].

Gradual body weight reduction via a smaller CR induces more consistent body weight losses over a CR period of more than one week. Short-term hypoenergetic weight loss programs could maintain lean body mass in young healthy athletes who have a protein intake around 2.

It has been demonstrated that VO2max is increased after a body weight reduction [ 25 ]; in this sense, we have detected an improvement in physical performance markers, such as heart rate, lactate levels, fatigue perception Borg index , and the energy expenditure required to run a meter, that are not dependent exclusively on changes in total body mass [ 33 ].

Previous studies with well-balanced diets or even after one month of consuming functional beverage supplements provided no evidence suggesting that these nutritional habits have an effect on physical performance parameters such as lactate levels [ 9 ].

Additionally, we observed a decrease in lean body mass as a consequence of the CR; however, this decrease did not involve any impairment of physical performance parameters.

This fact could indicate that athletes should have an ideal lean body mass in order to produce maximal physical performance. To sum up, higher muscle mass does not necessarily indicate better physical performance.

Furthermore, we detected several changes in energy expenditure and in energy efficiency as a consequence of the CR; this fact could be explained by considering that CR might cause increased mitochondria efficiency [ 4 ].

Moreover, the CR reduced plasma triglycerides by Physical performance parameters, such as heart rate, lactate levels, fatigue perception Borg index , were significantly improved as a consequence of the CR, which ameliorated the onset of the anaerobic phase of exercise.

Moreover, the CR decreased the energy expenditure required to run one meter and improved energy efficiency. However, when implementing a CR, a micronutrient supplement should also be considered. Bodkin NL, et al. Mortality and morbidity in laboratory-maintained rhesus monkeys and effects of long-term dietary restriction.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Mattson MP, Wan R. Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems.

J Nutr Biochem. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Norton LE. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Lopez-Lluch G, et al. Calorie restriction induces mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetic efficiency.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Ishihara H, et al. Effects of dietary restriction on physical performance in mice. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Hum Sci. Article Google Scholar. Larson-Meyer DE, et al. Caloric restriction with or without exercise: the fitness versus fatness debate.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. Ferguson LM, et al. Effects of caloric restriction and overnight fasting on cycling endurance performance.

J Strength Cond Res. Dungan CM, Li J, Williamson DL. Caloric restriction normalizes obesity-induced alterations on regulators of skeletal muscle growth signaling. Capo X, et al. Effects of dietary almond- and olive oil-based docosahexaenoic acid- and vitamin E-enriched beverage supplementation on athletic performance and oxidative stress markers.

Food Funct. Ainsworth BE, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Farrán A, Zamora R, Cervera P. Tablas de Composición de Alimentos del CESNID Food Composition Tables of CESNID. E; Google Scholar. Rothney MP, et al.

Calorie needs vary from person to person because they depend on factors such as age, sex, height, current weight and physical activity level.

There are various ways to estimate your own calorie needs. The easiest method consists of three simple steps:. In addition, make sure you record what you eat in an online food journal like Cronometer , at least in the beginning of your weight loss process.

Tracking your diet will help you ensure that you continue to reach your daily recommended nutrient intakes. When it comes to long-term weight loss, patience is key. Instead, opt for diets that are focused on diet quality and encourage you to make sustainable lifestyle changes.

In order to lose weight, you need to eat fewer calories than you burn. Here are 35 simple but highly effective ways to cut lots of calories. Calories matter, but counting them is not at all necessary to lose weight. Here are 7 scientifically proven ways to lose fat on "autopilot.

Yo-yo dieting is the pattern of losing weight, regaining it and then dieting again. This article examines 10 reasons why yo-yo dieting is bad for you.

When limiting your calorie intake, it's important to choose nutritious low-calorie foods. Here are 42 healthy foods that are very low in calories. Discover which diet is best for managing your diabetes.

Getting enough fiber is crucial to overall gut health. Let's look at some easy ways to get more into your diet:. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep?

Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based 5 Ways Restricting Calories Can Be Harmful. By Alina Petre, MS, RD NL — Updated on January 30, How we vet brands and products Healthline only shows you brands and products that we stand behind. Our team thoroughly researches and evaluates the recommendations we make on our site.

To establish that the product manufacturers addressed safety and efficacy standards, we: Evaluate ingredients and composition: Do they have the potential to cause harm?

Fact-check all health claims: Do they align with the current body of scientific evidence? Assess the brand: Does it operate with integrity and adhere to industry best practices? We do the research so you can find trusted products for your health and wellness. Read more about our vetting process.

Was this helpful? People trying to lose weight often restrict the number of calories they eat. Your Calorie Needs, Explained. Your body requires calories to function and uses them to sustain three main processes 1 : Basal metabolic rate BMR : This refers to the number of calories needed to cover your basic functions, including the proper functioning of your brain, kidneys, heart, lungs and nervous system.

Digestion: Your body uses a certain number of calories to digest and metabolize the foods you eat. This is also known as the thermic effect of food TEF. Physical activity: This refers to the number of calories needed to fuel your everyday tasks and workouts.

However, restricting calories too much may harm your health in the following 5 ways. It Can Lower Your Metabolism. Summary: Severely restricting your calories can decrease your metabolism and cause you to lose muscle mass.

It Can Cause Fatigue and Nutrient Deficiencies. Calorie-restricted diets may limit other nutrients too, including: Protein: Not eating enough protein-rich foods like meat, fish, dairy, beans, peas, lentils, nuts and seeds may cause muscle loss, hair thinning and brittle nails Calcium: Not eating enough calcium-rich foods like dairy, leafy greens, calcium-set tofu and fortified milks may reduce bone strength and increase the risk of fractures Biotin and thiamine: A low intake of whole grains, legumes, eggs, dairy, nuts and seeds may limit your intake of these two B vitamins, potentially resulting in muscle weakness, hair loss and scaly skin 27 , Vitamin A: Not eating enough vitamin A-rich foods like organ meat, fish, dairy, leafy greens or orange-colored fruits and vegetables may weaken your immune system and lead to permanent eye damage Magnesium: An insufficient intake of magnesium-rich whole grains, nuts and leafy greens may cause fatigue, migraines, muscle cramps and abnormal heart rhythms Summary: Restricting calories too severely can lead to fatigue.

It May Reduce Fertility. Summary: Overly restricting calories may potentially reduce fertility, especially in women. It Can Weaken Your Bones.

Summary: Restricting calories may disturb hormone levels, which may result in weaker bones and an increased risk of fractures. It May Lower Your Immunity.

Restricting calories may increase your risk of infections and illness. Summary: Calorie restriction, especially when combined with strenuous physical activity, may lower your immune defenses.

How to Eat the Right Number of Calories.

Calculating Caloric Requirements for Weight Loss

DNA methylation marks are chemical tags on the DNA sequence that regulate the expression of genes and are known to change with aging. The third measure studied by the researchers was DunedinPACE, which estimates the pace of aging, or the rate of biological deterioration over time.

Our findings are important because they provide evidence from a randomized trial that slowing human aging may be possible. They also give us a sense of the kinds of effects we might look for in trials of interventions that could appeal to more people, like intermittent fasting or time-restricted eating.

In other studies, slower DunedinPACE is associated with reduced risk for heart disease, stroke, disability, and dementia. DunedinPACE was developed by Daniel Belsky and colleagues at Duke University and the University of Otago.

To develop DunedinPACE, researchers analyzed data from the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a landmark birth cohort study of human development and aging that follows individuals born in in Dunedin, New Zealand.

Researchers first analyzed the rate of change in 19 biomarkers across 20 years of follow-up to derive a single composite measure of the Pace of Aging. Calcium remained level, but vitamin D increased in plasmatic values after the six weeks of CR.

In addition, the blood lactate levels during each running period were significantly lower after six weeks of CR when compared to pre-CR levels. The CR ameliorated the onset of the anaerobic phase of exercise with respect pre-intervention values.

In this sense, the perception of exertion, as indicated by the Borg index, also decreased after the CR when compared to values observed previously, under an unrestricted diet Fig.

Effects of Caloric Restriction on energy expenditure and on energy expenditure rate. a Represents energy expenditure. b Represents energy expenditure per meter. Effects of caloric restriction on lactate blood levels and on Borg test. a Represents lactate blood concentration.

b Represents Borg test results. Previous results obtained in a similar study provide evidence of the null effects of one month of training on performance parameters determined during a maximal exercise test on athletes that consumed well-balanced diets or even supplemented their diets with a functional beverage [ 9 ].

In addition, the CR via every-other-day fasting allowed for body weight to be controlled, as mainly body fat was lost, although some lean mass loss was also observed.

The loss of lean body mass during weight reduction is considered a negative effect that could compromise performance [ 25 ]. Lean body mass loss during the CR via intermittent partial fasting could probably be avoided by increasing protein intake to around 2.

Regardless of how they do it, athletes must aim to preserve lean body mass during weight reduction [ 24 , 25 ].

The CR led to a micronutrient and vitamin intake below RDAs for athletes, which could have compromised their exercise performance. In this sense, CR intervention programs might consider supplementing diets with vitamins and micronutrients, such as iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and vitamins A and C.

However, blood markers of nutritional status in athletes, such as those related to iron metabolism, calcium and vitamin D, glucose, markers of nitrogen handling, or those related to tissue damage, maintained the same levels before and after the intervention.

This result has been observed in other trials with hypocaloric diets [ 24 ]. The low fat intake associated with the CR could alter the availability of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to not meeting daily requirements.

The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte is a good marker for assessing the efficacy of nutritional intervention trials in incorporating dietary fatty acids [ 21 ].

The presence of different fatty acids in the diet and lifestyle factors, such as exercise and obesity, influence the incorporation of the acids into different tissues and erythrocyte membranes [ 21 ]; the erythrocyte content of the omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids were maintained or even increased after the six weeks of CR.

The possible lack of fatty acid availability during six-week CR did not affect fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes. Additionally, the CR lessened oxidative damage in plasma lipids. It has been pointed out that a CR decreases mitochondrial electron flow as well as proton leaks in mammalian cells, and attenuates muscle damage caused by intracellular reactive oxygen species [ 4 , 27 ].

We actually provide evidence that a CR reduces oxidative damage in circulating lipids and blood vessels along with reducing circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The CR intervention significantly reduced body, trunk, arm, and leg weights; it mainly reduced body fat mass, but a small yet significant reduction in lean body mass was also observed.

Reducing body weight is a goal for many athletes [ 25 ]. Either rapid or gradual body weight reduction techniques have been used to control body weight in athletes with varied results on physical performance.

Aerobic endurance capacity decreases after rapid body weight reduction. It also causes detrimental effects in a min treadmill time-trial session in temperate conditions [ 29 ]; affects health, muscle performance, and energy; and alters perceived exertion and dynamic postural control [ 30 ].

Severe CR also results in a large reduction in body mass that appears to be mostly explained by a rapid reduction in body water stores [ 31 ].

Gradual body weight reduction via a smaller CR induces more consistent body weight losses over a CR period of more than one week. Short-term hypoenergetic weight loss programs could maintain lean body mass in young healthy athletes who have a protein intake around 2.

It has been demonstrated that VO2max is increased after a body weight reduction [ 25 ]; in this sense, we have detected an improvement in physical performance markers, such as heart rate, lactate levels, fatigue perception Borg index , and the energy expenditure required to run a meter, that are not dependent exclusively on changes in total body mass [ 33 ].

Previous studies with well-balanced diets or even after one month of consuming functional beverage supplements provided no evidence suggesting that these nutritional habits have an effect on physical performance parameters such as lactate levels [ 9 ].

Additionally, we observed a decrease in lean body mass as a consequence of the CR; however, this decrease did not involve any impairment of physical performance parameters. This fact could indicate that athletes should have an ideal lean body mass in order to produce maximal physical performance.

To sum up, higher muscle mass does not necessarily indicate better physical performance. Furthermore, we detected several changes in energy expenditure and in energy efficiency as a consequence of the CR; this fact could be explained by considering that CR might cause increased mitochondria efficiency [ 4 ].

Moreover, the CR reduced plasma triglycerides by Physical performance parameters, such as heart rate, lactate levels, fatigue perception Borg index , were significantly improved as a consequence of the CR, which ameliorated the onset of the anaerobic phase of exercise.

Moreover, the CR decreased the energy expenditure required to run one meter and improved energy efficiency. However, when implementing a CR, a micronutrient supplement should also be considered.

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Montagnani M, et al. Relevance of hydration state of the fat free mass in estimating fat mass by body impedance analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. Weir JB. New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J Physiol. Physical activity levels should also be considered with regard to caloric restriction, as well as current calorie intake.

A healthy diet plan is often low in calories, and may not require a further restriction of calories. Individuals who engage in frequent physical activity and who consume a nutrient-dense diet likely already meet the baseline requirements of caloric restriction as a practice and are likely already receiving the benefit.

Side Effects. Without adequate nutrition, caloric restriction is not conducive to health and tends to promote starvation in the long run. Chronic over-restriction of calories and long-term starvation can result in the following side effects:.

Caloric restriction is not a recommended practice for any individuals with the following conditions:. The concept of caloric restriction can be applied in any of the above ways intermittent fasting, time-restricted eating, or calorie counting and reduction.

The conventional approach demands counting calories and limiting their intake without compromising adequate nutrition. This is based on age, height, weight, and physical activity levels.

The average recommended caloric consumption for men is around per day and per day for women. Non-essential plant-based nutrients have been found to be responsible for the health-promoting benefits of whole foods.

They are present throughout the diet, mainly in fruits, vegetables, legumes, herbs, spices, whole grains, nuts, and seeds. All antioxidant phytochemicals are typically consumed in tiny amounts, averaging a few hundred micrograms to several milligrams per day.

While their quantities are minimal and even less in processed foods , their collective dietary presence and benefit have been shown through epidemiological studies linked with optimal health, longevity, inflammation control, and a reduced risk of acquiring disease.

In animal and other studies, most of these plant-based nutrients failed to extend lifespan in short-term trials alone. However, their effects appear to enhance the longevity-promotion effects of caloric restriction, making them complementary.

While it might seem counterintuitive, physical activity is a necessary component in balancing metabolism and promoting longevity. Physical activity appears to be one of the only factors capable of increasing energy expenditure, metabolic rate, and longevity. Caloric restriction in itself helps to reduce the energy expended during physical activity.

Inconsistent Caloric Restriction Can Lower Physical Activity Levels. It has been observed that after six months to a year of caloric restriction, physical activity levels decline, possibly as a form of compensation for reduced energy intake. However, after two years, this effect seems to normalize, and activity levels increase back to baseline.

Therefore, caloric restriction should probably not be used as a short-term strategy for optimizing energy levels as it may promote reduced physical activity. In the long term, caloric restriction can enhance physical activity by increasing available ATP energy and lowering bodily energy requirements via body mass reduction.

Exercise Consistency Better Enhances Caloric Restriction Benefit. A handful of studies show that the resting metabolic rate is slightly elevated after acute exercise due to changes in oxygen uptake. These effects do not appear to be carried forward with consistent, long-term exercise, wherein resting metabolic rate remains largely unaffected after engaging in physical activity.

While there is no ultimate cure for aging, it would seem that extending our mortality may be as simple as processing less on a daily basis. Restricting calories is able to lower the metabolic rate and significantly enhance energy production, with noticeable long-term benefits on health and the quality of aging.

Unprocessed, plant-based whole foods and physical activity offer complementary benefits to that of caloric restriction through promoting optimal energy metabolism.

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5 Ways Restricting Calories Can Be Harmful

The algorithm was based on previously acquired data from about 1, people who were followed for 20 years to see how rapidly their organ functioning — including the heart, liver, kidney and lungs — declined as they grew older, Belsky said. Participants in the study were not followed up with after the two-year intervention.

A separate study, also funded by the agency, is planning to look at the effects of a calorie-restricted diet after 10 years, he added. Still, Hadley said, the new study reinforces findings from previous research that some calorie restriction can promote health benefits, including living longer and healthier lives.

Researchers still don't know exactly why cutting calories appears to slow the aging process, though there is evidence that calorie restriction prompts changes at the cellular level, Belsky said. There are resource stresses in the environment. We need to make sure that we are using all of the resources available to us most efficiently.

Pankaj Kapahi, a researcher at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging, said that along with calorie restriction, exercise and eating a balanced diet are also important factors to consider for aging.

He was not involved in the research. Kapahi added that the study's findings do not mean people should starve themselves, saying that could lead to malnutrition and poor mental health. Valter Longo, a biochemist and director of the Longevity Institute at the University of Southern California, said that limiting calories for extended periods of time can be harmful.

Studies in animals, for example, have shown that long-term calorie restriction was found to be associated with a risk of reduced muscle strength, slower metabolism and an impaired immune system, said Longo, who was not involved in the study. Hadley cautioned against overinterpreting the results, saying calorie restriction may not be for everyone, including those with multiple underlying conditions.

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JFT, REC, KEM, MMK, and RJB were all involved in the review of relevant literature pertaining to this topic and in the writing and editing of this manuscript.

DunedinPACE was developed by Daniel Belsky and colleagues at Duke University and the University of Otago. To develop DunedinPACE, researchers analyzed data from the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a landmark birth cohort study of human development and aging that follows individuals born in in Dunedin, New Zealand.

Researchers first analyzed the rate of change in 19 biomarkers across 20 years of follow-up to derive a single composite measure of the Pace of Aging. Next, the researchers used machine-learning techniques to distill this year Pace of Aging into a single-time-point DNA methylation blood test.

The values of the DunedinPACE algorithm correspond to the years of biological aging experienced during a single calendar year, providing a measure of the pace of aging. Additional co-authors and their affiliations are listed in the paper, "Effect of long-term caloric restriction on DNA methylation measures of biological aging in healthy adults from the CALERIE trial.

S National Institute on Aging grant R01AG and also utilized resources provided by the CALERIE Research Network R33AG and the Dunedin Study R01AG Coauthors received additional support from the American Brain Foundation, and NIH grants P30AG, R01AG, R33AG, CIHR RN, R01 AG, R03AG U01AG

caloric restriction and nutrient intake

Caloric restriction and nutrient intake -

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You may have heard about calorie restriction and fasting diets and wondered why they're getting so much attention in the news.

Aren't they just other terms for dieting to lose weight? No, they're not. Calorie restriction means reducing average daily caloric intake below what is typical or habitual, without malnutrition or deprivation of essential nutrients.

In a fasting diet, a person does not eat at all or severely limits intake during certain times of the day, week, or month. A practical effect of a fasting diet may be fewer calories because there is less time for regular eating. These eating patterns are being studied as possible ways to maintain good health and live longer.

They are not temporary weight-loss plans. Interest in their potential health and aging benefits stems from decades of research with a variety of animals, including worms, crabs, snails, fruit flies, and rodents. In many experiments, calorie-restricted feeding delayed the onset of age-related disorders and, in some studies, extended lifespan.

Given these results in animals, researchers are studying if and how calorie restriction or a fasting diet affects health and lifespan in people. Many studies have shown that obese and overweight people who lose weight by dieting can improve their health. But scientists still have much to learn about how calorie restriction and fasting affect people who are not overweight, including older adults.

They also don't know whether these eating patterns are safe or even doable in the long run. In short, there's not enough evidence to recommend any such eating regimen to the public. Calorie restriction is a consistent pattern of reducing average daily caloric intake, while fasting regimens primarily focus on the frequency of eating.

The fasting diet may or may not involve a restriction in the intake of calories during non-fasting times. There are a variety of fasting diets, sometimes called "intermittent fasting. More animal research has been done on calorie restriction than on fasting.

In some experiments, calorie restriction is also a form of fasting because the lab animals consume all their daily allotted food within hours and go many more hours without any food. In these studies, when rodents and other animals were given 10 percent to 40 percent fewer calories than usual but provided with all necessary nutrients, many showed extension of lifespan and reduced rates of several diseases, especially cancers.

But, some studies did not show this benefit, and in some mouse strains, calorie restriction shortened lifespan rather than extending it. In the worm C. elegans , a fasting diet increased lifespan by 40 percent. A study with fruit flies found that calorie restriction—but not intermittent fasting—was associated with living longer.

One study of male mice found that lifelong alternate-day fasting increased longevity, mainly by delaying cancer occurrence rather than slowing other aging processes.

Two National Institute on Aging NIA -supported studies in rhesus monkeys sought to find out whether the benefits of calorie restriction are seen in longer-lived species. In both studies, the monkeys were kept on a calorie-restriction diet 30 percent fewer calories than for monkeys in the control groups for more than 20 years.

Although there were differences between the two studies—including monkey breed and type of food—both provided evidence that calorie restriction reduced the incidence of age-related conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. One study found an extension of lifespan, while the other did not.

Many of the monkeys are still alive, so the full impact of calorie restriction on their maximum lifespan has yet to be determined.

Some study results suggest that calorie restriction may have health benefits for humans, but more research is needed before we understand its long-term effects. There are no data in humans on the relationship between calorie restriction and longevity. Some people have voluntarily practiced extreme degrees of calorie restriction over many years in the belief that it will extend lifespan or preserve health.

Studies on these individuals have found markedly low levels of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The studies have also found many other physiologic effects whose long-term benefits and risks are uncertain, as well as reductions in sexual interest and the ability to maintain body temperature in cold environments.

These people generally consume a variety of nutritional supplements, which limits knowing which effects are due to calorie restriction versus other factors. To conduct a more rigorous study of calorie restriction in humans, NIA supported a pioneering clinical trial called Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy CALERIE.

In CALERIE, young and middle-aged, normal-weight or moderately overweight adults were randomly divided into two groups. People in the experimental group were told to follow a calorie-restriction diet for 2 years, while those in the control group followed their usual diet.

The study was designed to have participants in the experimental group eat 25 percent fewer calories per day than they had regularly consumed before the study. Although they did not meet this target, they reduced their daily caloric intake by 12 percent and maintained, on average, a 10 percent loss in body weight over 2 years.

A follow-up study 2 years after the intervention ended found that participants had sustained much of this weight loss. It's important to note that calorie-restriction regimens are not starvation diets.

The weight loss achieved with calorie restriction in the CALERIE trial resulted in body weights within the normal or overweight range. Compared to participants in the control group, those in the calorie-restriction group had reduced risk factors lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol for age-related diseases such as diabetes , heart disease , and stroke.

They also showed decreases in some inflammatory factors and thyroid hormones. There is some evidence that lower levels of these measures are associated with longer lifespan and diminished risk for age-related diseases. Moreover, in the calorie-restricted individuals, no adverse effects and some favorable ones were found on quality of life, mood, sexual function , and sleep.

The calorie-restriction intervention did cause slight declines in bone density, lean body mass, and aerobic capacity the ability of the body to use oxygen during exercise.

However, these declines were generally no more than expected based on participants' weight loss. Other short-term studies have found that combining physical activity with calorie restriction protects against losses of bone, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity. Some CALERIE participants also experienced brief episodes of anemia diminished number of circulating red blood cells that carry oxygen through the body.

Overall, these findings indicate that while the degree of calorie restriction in CALERIE is safe for normal-weight or moderately obese people, clinical monitoring is recommended.

Most research to date has focused on the weight-loss aspect of fasting, primarily in obese people, and only a few small clinical trials have been conducted. More work is needed to determine which, if any, types of fasting diets have long-term benefits.

Observational studies have been conducted in people who practice fasting in one form or another.

Journal of inntake Caloric restriction and nutrient intake Society of Sports Nutrition volume 15Nutfient number: 12 Cite this article. Metrics Fueling for Performance. Caloric restriction induces restricton biogenesis and improves XML sitemap implementation fitness in rodents. We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. Athletes performed a maximal exercise stress test both before and after the caloric restriction period.

Author: Kazigrel

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