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Nutrition guides for athletes

Nutrition guides for athletes

Speaking Enhance endurance for runners dehydration Nutrition guides for athletes, water is as important to gyides your game power as Nugrition. We link primary sources — athlettes studies, scientific references, and statistics — within each article and also list them in the resources section at the bottom of our articles. Choose Nuts Nut butter Small amounts of salad dressings, mayonnaise, or oil Skip Wings Ribs Hot dogs Fried foods Fatty meats Pick your proteins wisely.

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Nutrition guides for athletes -

Eating a good diet can help provide the energy you need to finish a race, or just enjoy a casual sport or activity. You are more likely to be tired and perform poorly during sports when you do not get enough:.

The ideal diet for an athlete is not very different from the diet recommended for any healthy person. People tend to overestimate the amount of calories they burn per workout so it is important to avoid taking in more energy than you expend exercising.

To help you perform better, avoid exercising on an empty stomach. Everyone is different, so you will need to learn:. Carbohydrates are needed to provide energy during exercise.

Carbohydrates are stored mostly in the muscles and liver. It's beneficial to eat carbohydrates before you exercise if you will be exercising for more than 1 hour. You might have a glass of fruit juice, a cup grams of yogurt, or an English muffin with jelly.

Limit the amount of fat you consume in the hour before an athletic event. You also need carbohydrates during exercise if you will be doing more than an hour of intense aerobic exercise.

You can satisfy this need by having:. After exercise, you need to eat carbohydrates to rebuild the stores of energy in your muscles if you are working out heavily. Protein is important for muscle growth and to repair body tissues.

Protein can also be used by the body for energy, but only after carbohydrate stores have been used up. Most Americans already eat almost twice as much protein as they need for muscle development.

Too much protein in the diet:. Often, people who focus on eating extra protein may not get enough carbohydrates, which are the most important source of energy during exercise.

Water is the most important, yet overlooked, nutrient for athletes. Water and fluids are essential to keep the body hydrated and at the right temperature. Your body can lose several liters of sweat in an hour of vigorous exercise. Clear urine is a good sign that you have fully rehydrated.

Some ideas for keeping enough fluids in the body include:. Offer children water often during sports activities. They do not respond to thirst as well as adults. Teenagers and adults should replace any body weight lost during exercise with an equal amount of fluids.

For every pound grams you lose while exercising, you should drink 16 to 24 ounces to milliliters or 3 cups milliliters of fluid within the next 6 hours. Changing your body weight to improve performance must be done safely, or it may do more harm than good.

Keeping your body weight too low, losing weight too quickly, or preventing weight gain in an unnatural way can have negative health effects. Athletes require a lot of energy and nutrients to stay in shape. Because of this, strict diet plans can hurt your ability and be harmful to your health.

Without the calories from carbs, fat, and protein, you may not have enough strength. Not eating enough also can lead to malnutrition.

Female athletes can have abnormal menstrual cycles. You increase your risk of osteoporosis, a fragile bone condition caused in part from a lack of calcium. These potential risks are worse in adolescence but still present for adults.

Get medical help if you need to lose weight. Be sure to talk to your doctor before making major nutrition changes.

People often overestimate the number of calories they burn when training. Avoid taking in more energy than you expend exercising.

Also, avoid exercising on an empty stomach. Every athlete is different, so consider:. If you need to gain or lose weight to improve performance, it must be done safely. If not, it may do more harm than good. Do not keep your body weight too low, lose weight too quickly, or prevent weight gain in unhealthy ways.

It can have negative health effects. This can lead to poor eating habits with inadequate or excessive intake of certain nutrients. Talk to your family doctor find a diet that is right for your sport, age, gender, and amount of training. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition, Nutrition Resources for Collegiate Athletes.

National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus: Nutrition and athletic performance. Last Updated: May 9, This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

Getting these other than by mouth is called artificial…. Getting the right amount of water before, during, and after exercise helps your body to function properly. A lack…. Sugar is a simple carbohydrate that provides calories for your body to use as energy.

There are two main…. Visit The Symptom Checker. Read More. Knee Bracing: What Works? Sore Muscles from Exercise. Hydration for Athletes. Exercise and Seniors.

The Exercise Habit. Why Exercise? Exercise: How To Get Started. Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Nutrition for Athletes.

Calories come in different forms. The main types are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. They help build everything from muscle to skin, bones, and teeth. Protein is particularly important for building muscle mass and helping you recover from training.

This is due to its role in promoting muscle protein synthesis, the process of building new muscle. The general recommendation for protein intake to support lean body mass and sports performance is around 0. They fuel your daily functions, from exercising to breathing, thinking, and eating.

The other half can come from simpler starches such as white rice, white potatoes, pasta, and the occasional sweets and desserts. For example, an ultramarathon runner will need a vastly different amount of carbs than an Olympic weightlifter does.

For example, if you consume 2, calories per day, this would equate to — g daily. From there, you can adjust your carbohydrate intake to meet the energy demands of your sport or a given training session. In select cases, such as in keto-adapted athletes , they will provide a larger portion of daily energy needs.

Fats are unique because they provide 9 calories per gram, whereas protein and carbs provide 4 calories per gram. In addition to providing energy, fats assist in hormone production, serve as structural components of cell membranes, and facilitate metabolic processes, among other functions.

Fats provide a valuable source of calories, help support sport-related hormones, and can help promote recovery from exercise. In particular, omega-3 fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to help athletes recover from intense training.

After protein and carbohydrates, fats will make up the rest of the calories in your diet. Another notable factor to consider when optimizing your sports nutrition is timing — when you eat a meal or a specific nutrient in relation to when you train or compete. Timing your meals around training or competition may support enhanced recovery and tissue repair, enhanced muscle building, and improvements in your mood after high intensity exercise.

To best optimize muscle protein synthesis, the International Society of Sports Nutrition ISSN suggests consuming a meal containing 20—40 g of protein every 3—4 hours throughout the day. Consider consuming 30—60 g of a simple carbohydrate source within 30 minutes of exercising.

For certain endurance athletes who complete training sessions or competitions lasting longer than 60 minutes, the ISSN recommends consuming 30—60 g of carbs per hour during the exercise session to maximize energy levels. But if your intense training lasts less than 1 hour, you can probably wait until the session is over to replenish your carbs.

When engaging in sustained high intensity exercise, you need to replenish fluids and electrolytes to prevent mild to potentially severe dehydration. Athletes training or competing in hot conditions need to pay particularly close attention to their hydration status, as fluids and electrolytes can quickly become depleted in high temperatures.

During an intense training session, athletes should consume 6—8 oz of fluid every 15 minutes to maintain a good fluid balance. A common method to determine how much fluid to drink is to weigh yourself before and after training. Every pound 0. You can restore electrolytes by drinking sports drinks and eating foods high in sodium and potassium.

Because many sports drinks lack adequate electrolytes, some people choose to make their own. In addition, many companies make electrolyte tablets that can be combined with water to provide the necessary electrolytes to keep you hydrated.

There are endless snack choices that can top off your energy stores without leaving you feeling too full or sluggish. The ideal snack is balanced, providing a good ratio of macronutrients, but easy to prepare.

When snacking before a workout, focus on lower fat options , as they tend to digest more quickly and are likely to leave you feeling less full. After exercise, a snack that provides a good dose of protein and carbs is especially important for replenishing glycogen stores and supporting muscle protein synthesis.

They help provide an appropriate balance of energy, nutrients, and other bioactive compounds in food that are not often found in supplement form.

That said, considering that athletes often have greater nutritional needs than the general population, supplementation can be used to fill in any gaps in the diet. Protein powders are isolated forms of various proteins, such as whey, egg white, pea, brown rice, and soy.

Protein powders typically contain 10—25 g of protein per scoop, making it easy and convenient to consume a solid dose of protein. Research suggests that consuming a protein supplement around training can help promote recovery and aid in increases in lean body mass.

For example, some people choose to add protein powder to their oats to boost their protein content a bit. Carb supplements may help sustain your energy levels, particularly if you engage in endurance sports lasting longer than 1 hour. These concentrated forms of carbs usually provide about 25 g of simple carbs per serving, and some include add-ins such as caffeine or vitamins.

They come in gel or powder form. Many long-distance endurance athletes will aim to consume 1 carb energy gel containing 25 g of carbs every 30—45 minutes during an exercise session longer than 1 hour.

Sports drinks also often contain enough carbs to maintain energy levels, but some athletes prefer gels to prevent excessive fluid intake during training or events, as this may result in digestive distress. Many athletes choose to take a high quality multivitamin that contains all the basic vitamins and minerals to make up for any potential gaps in their diet.

This is likely a good idea for most people, as the potential benefits of supplementing with a multivitamin outweigh the risks. One vitamin in particular that athletes often supplement is vitamin D, especially during winter in areas with less sun exposure.

Low vitamin D levels have been shown to potentially affect sports performance, so supplementing is often recommended.

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Teenagers and adults should replace any body weight lost during exercise with an equal amount of fluids. For every pound grams you lose while exercising, you should drink 16 to 24 ounces to milliliters or 3 cups milliliters of fluid within the next 6 hours.

Changing your body weight to improve performance must be done safely, or it may do more harm than good. Keeping your body weight too low, losing weight too quickly, or preventing weight gain in an unnatural way can have negative health effects.

It is important to set realistic body weight goals. Young athletes who are trying to lose weight should work with a registered dietitian. Experimenting with diets on your own can lead to poor eating habits with inadequate or excessive intake of certain nutrients.

Speak with a health care professional to discuss a diet that is right for your sport, age, sex, and amount of training. Buschmann JL, Buell J. Sports nutrition.

In: Miller MD, Thompson SR. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Riley E, Moriarty A. In: Madden CC, Putukian M, Eric C. McCarty EC, Craig C. Young CC, eds. Netter's Sports Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap 5. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM.

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance.

J Acad Nutr Diet. PMID: pubmed. Updated by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David C.

Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A. Editorial team. Nutrition and athletic performance. You are more likely to be tired and perform poorly during sports when you do not get enough: Calories Carbohydrates Fluids Iron, vitamins, and other minerals Protein.

However, the amount of each food group you need will depend on: The type of sport The amount of training you do The amount of time you spend doing the activity or exercise People tend to overestimate the amount of calories they burn per workout so it is important to avoid taking in more energy than you expend exercising.

Complex carbohydrates are found in foods such as pasta, bagels, whole grain breads, and rice. They provide energy, fibervitamins, and minerals. These foods are low in fat. Simple sugarssuch as soft drinks, jams and jellies, and candy provide a lot of calories, but they do not provide vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.

What matters most is the total amount of carbohydrates you eat each day. A little more than half of your calories should come from carbohydrates. You can satisfy this need by having: Five to ten ounces to milliliters of a sports drink every 15 to 20 minutes Two to three handfuls of pretzels One-half to two-thirds cup 40 to 55 grams of low-fat granola After exercise, you need to eat carbohydrates to rebuild the stores of energy in your muscles if you are working out heavily.

People who exercise or train for more than 90 minutes should eat or drink more carbohydrates, possibly with protein, 2 hours later. Try a sports bar, trail mix with nuts, or yogurt and granola For workouts lasting less than 60 minute, water is most often all that is needed.

PROTEIN Protein is important for muscle growth and to repair body tissues. But it is also a myth that a high-protein diet will promote muscle growth. Only strength training and exercise will change muscle. Athletes, even body builders, need only a little bit of extra protein to support muscle growth.

Athletes can easily meet this increased need by eating more total calories eating more food. Too much protein in the diet: Will be stored as increased body fat Can increase the chance for dehydration not enough fluids in the body Can lead to loss of calcium Can put an added burden on the kidneys Often, people who focus on eating extra protein may not get enough carbohydrates, which are the most important source of energy during exercise.

Amino acid supplements and eating a lot of protein are not recommended. WATER AND OTHER FLUIDS Water is the most important, yet overlooked, nutrient for athletes.

Some ideas for keeping enough fluids in the body include: Make sure you drink plenty of fluids with every meal, whether or not you will be exercising.

Drink about 16 ounces 2 cups or milliliters of water 2 hours before a workout. It is important to start exercising with enough water in your body.

Water is best for the first hour. Switching to an energy drink after the first hour will help you get enough electrolytes. Drink even when you no longer feel thirsty. Pouring water over your head might feel good, but it will not get fluids into your body.

Alternative Names. Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration. Learn how to cite this page.

Related MedlinePlus Health Topics. Sports Fitness.

: Nutrition guides for athletes

Nutrition and athletic performance: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Sugar is a simple carbohydrate that provides calories for your body to use as energy. You may find it helpful to avoid food the hour before a sporting event. Nutritional misinformation can do as much harm to the ambitious athlete as good nutrition can help. Minerals play an important role in athletic function. These professionals serve to educate athletes on all aspects of nutrition related to sports performance, including taking in the right amount of food, nutrients, hydration, and supplementation when needed. Eating the right foods after workouts is important for muscle gain, recovery, and performance. Advances in Sports Medicine and Fitness Vol 2.
More on this topic for: Gguides Nutrition guides for athletes not respond to thirst as well as adults. The amount atbletes energy found within a given food is dependent on the macronutrient carbohydrate, protein and fat content of the item. It can have negative health effects. Offer children water often during sports activities. However, a good amount of sports nutrition advice is applicable to most athletes, regardless of their sport.
Alternative Names However, vegetarian athletes should work with a dietitian to make sure their protein intake is sufficient. Athletes should drink before, during, and after exercise. Sports Nutrition is such an important facet of performance that NASM made a course on the subject. Please enable Strictly Necessary Cookies first so that we can save your preferences! Limited amounts of caffeine have been shown to enhance athletic performance. Every athlete is different, so consider:.
A Guide to Eating for Sports (for Teens) - Nemours KidsHealth Before following any nutrition guidelines for athletes, researchers advise that individuals consult with their coaches or guardians, as well as their physician or a licensed nutritionist. Here are some tips: Eat a meal 3 to 4 hours before activity. Our job is to determine the unique issues, concerns, and needs of each Colorado community and to help offer effective solutions. Choose Nuts Nut butter Small amounts of salad dressings, mayonnaise, or oil Skip Wings Ribs Hot dogs Fried foods Fatty meats Pick your proteins wisely. Maintaining adequate fat intake is crucial to meeting nutritional needs of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, vitamins A, D, E and K. Fueling and hydrating your body before, during and after workout not only affects training and performance but general comfort as well. Good nutrition is flexible.
Nutrition Guide for Athletes

gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Find nutrition tips to help teen athletes fuel before, during, and after workouts to optimize performance.

Aim to get nutrition from real foods first! Check out this infographic for foods to boost athletic performance. Read about how athletes achieve peak performance by training and eating a balanced diet including a variety of foods in this printable fact sheet.

The WAVE Sport Nutrition Curriculum uses youth's interest in sports to teach them about healthy eating and hydration to fuel a healthy, active body for life. Learn how nutrition before, during, and after sport competitions can improve athletic performance.

An official website of the United States government. Here's how you know. dot gov icon Official websites use. https icon Secure. Find information on nutrition and athletic performance.

However, diet is only one small component that makes up the umbrella of sports nutrition. Having a thorough understanding of human physiology and metabolism, sports science, exercise physiology, sports psychology , supplements, and a basic understanding of sports themselves is vital to becoming a successful sports nutritionist.

Sports Nutrition is such an important facet of performance that NASM made a course on the subject. Check out the Sports Nutrition Coach course page here. Combining your understanding of metabolism, energy systems, and diet is going to be the first step in creating programs that can enhance someone's athletic performance.

Starting with the basics, let's review general recommendations and uses for carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Carbohydrates are the body's preferred fuel source for energy, especially red blood cells and the brain. Regarding metabolic pathways, carbohydrates are the quickest to break down and convert to ATP Hence why they are the preferred energy source.

General recommendations for carbohydrates are broken down into two categories: endurance and strength.

Training for endurance athletes is often very high volume and high intensity, and this often requires higher caloric and carbohydrate needs. While strength athletes also engage in intense exercise, their volume is significantly less than that of an endurance athlete. Protein is considered the king of macronutrients in the sports nutrition world.

Because it is ESSENTIAL for muscle recovery. While this macronutrient doesn't deliver high energy output, meaning the body doesn't prefer to use it as an energy substrate, it is vital for building and repairing muscle tissues and maintaining the immune system.

Protein recommendations for endurance athletes are between 1. Fats are needed to deliver essential vitamins and nutrients, fight inflammation, and support healthy hormone function.

Of all the macronutrients, fat recommendations are very similar between endurance and strength-based athletes ~1. Fat recommendations may be slightly higher for endurance-based athletes if they have very high caloric demands. The fundamentals of general recommendations are not what makes sports nutrition unique… The utilization of these different macronutrients at specific times is one of the biggest hallmarks of sports nutrition.

In the field, we call this nutrient timing. Nutrient timing is delivering specific nutrients during specific windows to significantly enhance athletic performance and promote a quick recovery.

Yes, hydration is also another key component to sports nutrition since you will be dealing with highly active individuals. And what happens when we are active? We sweat! Therefore, ensuring adequate fluid consumption for athletes and active individuals is very important.

If exercise is 60 minutes are less, water alone will be an adequate hydrator. Electrolytes are responsible for maintaining fluid balance and are essential for normal muscle contractions.

Losing electrolytes in excess is what leads to early fatigue and cramping. Therefore, consuming electrolyte beverages during exercise for greater than one hour can enhance performance.

Since enhancement in performance is the name of the game in sports nutrition, being very well versed in the field of supplements is crucial. The ISSN recommends that consumers evaluate the validity and scientific merit of claims that manufacturers make about dietary supplements.

There is little evidence to support the efficacy or safety of many dietary supplements, including:. However, scientists have shown that other ergogenic aids, such as caffeine and creatine monohydrate, are safe and effective for athletes.

It is important to be aware that some athletic associations ban the use of certain nutritional supplements. Moreover, athletes should ensure they maintain adequate hydration. Given that sweat losses are a combination of fluids and electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, athletes may choose to and benefit from using sports drinks, milk , or both to meet some of their hydration needs.

The ISSN suggests that athletes training intensely for 2—6 hours per day 5—6 days of the week may burn over — calories per hour while exercising. As a result, athletes engaging in this level of activity may require 40—70 calories per 1 kg of body weight per day, compared with the average less active individual, who typically requires 25—35 calories per 1 kg of body weight daily.

According to the ISSN, athletes weighing 50— kg may require 2,—7, calories per day. It also notes that athletes weighing — kg may need to consume 6,—12, calories daily to meet training demands. The timing and content of meals can help support training goals, reduce fatigue, and help optimize body composition.

Guidelines for the timing and amount of nutrition will vary depending on the type of athlete. For example, the ISSN advises strength athletes consume carbohydrates and protein or protein on its own up to 4 hours before and up to 2 hours after exercise.

The American College of Sports Medicine ACSM also notes the importance of consuming protein both before and after exercise for strength athletes. By contrast, endurance athletes would need to consume mostly carbohydrates and a small amount of protein roughly 1—4 hours before exercise.

Both the ISSN and ACSM emphasize the role of meal timing in optimizing recovery and performance and recommend athletes space nutrient intake evenly throughout the day, every 3—4 hours. Some people may find that consuming meals too close to the beginning of exercise can cause digestive discomfort. It is therefore important to eat an appropriate amount and not exercise too quickly after eating.

People who are training or racing at peak levels may find it challenging to consume enough food for their energy requirements without causing gastrointestinal GI discomfort, especially immediately before an important workout or race.

For example, the ISSA highlights the importance of hydration and carbohydrate loading for competitive swimmers. At the same time, it emphasizes consuming easily digestible carbohydrates, such as bananas and pasta, prior to events to avoid GI discomfort. Athletes may need to work with a sports nutritionist, preferably a registered dietitian , to ensure they consume enough calories and nutrients to maintain their body weight, optimize performance and recovery, and plan a timing strategy that suits their body, sport, and schedule.

Athletes need to eat a healthy and varied diet that meets their nutrient requirements. Choosing whole grains and other fiber -rich carbohydrates as part of a daily diet generally promotes health. However, immediately prior to and during intense trainings and races, some athletes may prefer simpler, lower fiber carbohydrates to provide necessary fuel while minimizing GI distress.

The following is an example of what an athlete might eat in a day to meet their nutritional needs. Breakfast: eggs — either boiled, scrambled, or poached — with salmon , fresh spinach , and whole grain toast or bagel.

Lunch: stir-fry with chicken or tofu, brown rice , broccoli , green beans , and cherry tomatoes cooked in oil. Dinner: a baked sweet potato topped with turkey, bean chili, or both, served with a watercress , peppers, and avocado salad drizzled with olive oil and topped with hemp seeds.

Snacks are an important way for athletes to meet their calorie and nutrition needs and stay well fueled throughout the day. Options include:. Athletes need to plan their diet to optimize their health and performance. They should consider their calorie and macronutrient needs and ensure they eat a varied diet that provides essential vitamins and minerals.

Hydration and meal timing are also vital for performing well throughout the day. Some athletes may choose to take dietary supplements. However, they should be mindful of safety and efficacy issues and ensure that their sporting association allows them. Both amateur and professional athletes may benefit from consulting with a sports nutritionist to help them plan the optimal diet for their individual needs and goals.

Nutrition guides for athletes -

It can have negative health effects. This can lead to poor eating habits with inadequate or excessive intake of certain nutrients. Talk to your family doctor find a diet that is right for your sport, age, gender, and amount of training. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition, Nutrition Resources for Collegiate Athletes.

National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus: Nutrition and athletic performance. Last Updated: May 9, This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

Getting these other than by mouth is called artificial…. Getting the right amount of water before, during, and after exercise helps your body to function properly. A lack…. Sugar is a simple carbohydrate that provides calories for your body to use as energy.

There are two main…. Visit The Symptom Checker. Read More. Knee Bracing: What Works? Sore Muscles from Exercise. Hydration for Athletes. Exercise and Seniors.

The Exercise Habit. Why Exercise? Exercise: How To Get Started. Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Nutrition for Athletes. Calories come in different forms. The main types are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

Simple carbs fruits, milk, and vegetables are easier for your body to break down. They provide quick bursts of energy. Complex carbs take longer for your body to break down. They are a better source of energy over time. Complex carbs in whole grain products are the most nutritious. Examples include whole-grain bread, potatoes, brown rice, oatmeal, and kidney beans.

Fat is another important source of calories. In small amounts, fat is a key fuel source. It serves other functions, such as supporting good skin and hair. Do not replace carbs in your diet with fats.

This can slow you down, because your body has to work harder to burn fat for energy. When you can, choose unsaturated fats, like olive oil and nuts. These are better for your health than saturated and trans fats.

Too much fat or the wrong kinds can cause health problems. It can raise your bad LDL cholesterol level and increase your risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Protein is found in foods like meat, eggs, milk, beans, and nuts. Some athletes think they should consume large amounts of protein.

Over time, too much protein can be harmful to your health. The digestion process can put strain on your liver and kidneys. Know when to eat and rehydrate For athletes, knowing when to eat is as important as knowing what to eat. Things to consider Athletes require a lot of energy and nutrients to stay in shape.

Every athlete is different, so consider: How long before working out is best for you to eat How much food is the right amount for you If you need to gain or lose weight to improve performance, it must be done safely.

Questions to ask your doctor How many calories do I need to eat each day? Should I cut out carbs? Are super restrictive diets healthy for me? Are there any supplements they should take? Is it okay to eat sweets if I have to gain weight fast?

Resources Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition, Nutrition Resources for Collegiate Athletes National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus: Nutrition and athletic performance MyPlate.

Last Updated: May 9, This article was contributed by familydoctor. org editorial staff. Categories: Exercise and Fitness , Exercise Basics , Prevention and Wellness. Tags: athlete , nutrition , prevention , sports medicine. Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone.

Related Articles. About Advertise Contact. org is powered by. Fat consumption should be a minimum of 20 percent of total energy intake to preserve athletic performance.

Maintaining adequate fat intake is crucial to meeting nutritional needs of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, vitamins A, D, E and K. Athletes who are under pressure to achieve or maintain a low body weight are susceptible to using fat restriction and should be told that this may hinder their performance.

While adequate fat intake is necessary, claims that suggest a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet enhances athletic performance have not been supported by research. When compared to fat and carbohydrates, protein contributes minimally to energy needs for the body.

Dietary protein is digested into amino acids, which are used as the building blocks for the different tissues, enzymes, and hormones that the body needs to function. It is important for muscle building and repair that occurs after exercise. The current Recommended Daily Allowance RDA for protein is 0.

However, the Academy for Nutrition and Dietetics and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend that endurance athletes eat between 1.

Eating protein after an athletic event has been shown to support muscle protein synthesis. However, eating protein in excess of nutritional needs has not been shown to further increase muscle building. Extra protein is broken down for energy or is stored as fat.

A varied diet should provide more than enough protein as caloric intake increases. However, vegetarian athletes should work with a dietitian to make sure their protein intake is sufficient. Excess protein can deprive the athlete of more efficient fuel sources and can lead to dehydration.

High-protein diets increase the water requirement necessary to eliminate the nitrogen through the urine. Also, an increase in metabolic rate can occur and, therefore, increased oxygen consumption.

Protein and amino acid supplements are unnecessary and not recommended. However, this is typically excessive, because proteins needs are easily met in an American diet. Eating whole foods instead of supplements is generally the best practice.

Any athlete consuming supplements in replacement of meals should consult with their doctor or a registered dietitian before continuing. Water is an important nutrient for the athlete. Water loss during an athletic event varies between individuals.

Sweat loss can be tracked by measuring weight immediately before and after exercise. To avoid dehydration, an athlete should drink 5 to 7 mL per kilogram of body mass approximately four hours before an event.

Throughout the event, they should drink chilled water or electrolyte drinks, consuming enough to match sweat losses.

Chilled fluids are absorbed faster and help lower body temperature. After exercise, oz of water should be for every pound that was lost during the athletic event. By routinely tracking pre- and post- exercise weight changes, sweat rates can be estimated, allowing for more efficient hydration during athletic events.

An individual should never gain weight during exercise; this is a sign of excessive hydration, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances, and potentially hyponatremia. It is important to account for environmental concerns when considering water consumption. Sweat rates may increase dramatically in hot and humid weather, and it is increasingly important for an athlete to stay hydrated in these conditions.

Competing at high altitudes also increases water needs. Athletes consuming sport drinks or energy drinks should be aware of caffeine levels. Limited amounts of caffeine have been shown to enhance athletic performance. However, insomnia, restlessness and ringing of the ears can occur with caffeine consumption.

Furthermore, caffeine acts as a diuretic and may cause the need to urinate during competition. Maintaining adequate levels of vitamins and minerals is important for bodily function, and therefore, athletic performance. As the activity level of an athlete increases, the need for different vitamins and minerals may increase as well.

However, this need can be easily met by eating a balanced diet including a variety of foods. There is no evidence that taking more vitamins than is obtained by eating a variety of foods will improve performance.

B vitamins, including thiamin, riboflavin and niacin, are essential for producing energy from the fuel sources in the diet. Carbohydrate and protein foods are excellent sources of these vitamins. B vitamins are water soluble vitamins , which means that are not stored in the body, so toxicity is not an issue.

Some female athletes may lack riboflavin, so it is important to ensure adequate consumption of riboflavin-rich foods, like milk.

Milk products not only increase the riboflavin level but also provide protein and calcium. Vitamin D has many functions in the body, and is crucial for calcium absorption. Athletes who train indoors for prolonged periods of time should insure that they consuming adequate amounts of vitamin D through diet.

Exercise increases the oxidative stress on the body, increasing the need for vitamins C and E, which have an antioxidant effect. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin , found in fats in the diet such as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.

When an individual consumes excess fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K , they are stored in fat throughout the body. Because they are stored, excessive amounts of fat-soluble vitamins may have toxic effects.

Minerals play an important role in athletic function. Sodium is lost through the course of an athletic event through sweat, so it may be necessary to replace sodium in addition to water during an event. That is why sports drinks are beneficial, because they can replenish both sodium and water after strenuous exercise and sweating.

Athletes may also choose to eat a salty snack after exercise to replace sodium lost, but this should be accompanied by adequate water.

Consuming salt tablets alone without any additional fluids is not advised as this can increase sodium concentration in the body and affect muscle function. Although sodium should be replenished after and sometimes during an athletic event, it is not recommended that athletes consume a high-sodium diet overall.

Potassium levels can decline during exercise, similar to sodium, though losses are not as significant. Eating potassium-rich foods such as oranges, bananas and potatoes throughout training and after competition supplies necessary potassium.

Iron carries oxygen via blood to all cells in the body. Needs for this mineral are especially high in endurance athletes. Female athletes and athletes between 13 and 19 years old may have inadequate supplies of iron due to menstruation and strenuous exercise.

Female athletes who train heavily have a high incidence of amenorrhea, the absence of regular, monthly periods, and thus conserve iron stores.

Choosing foods high in iron such as red meat, lentils, dark leafy greens, and fortified cereals can help prevent iron deficiencies, but taking an iron supplement may be advised. It is best to consult a physician before starting iron supplements. Calcium is important in bone health and muscle function.

Athletes should have an adequate supply of calcium to prevent bone loss. Inadequate calcium levels may lead to osteoporosis later in life. Female athletes are more likely to have inadequate calcium consumption. Low-fat dairy products are a good source of calcium. Restricting calories during periods of high activity can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

This negatively impacts athletic performance, and has adverse repercussions for general health and wellbeing. Athletes who are wishing to lose weight should do so during the off-season.

Eating before competition can increase performance when compared to exercising in fasted state. A pre-game meal three to four hours before the event allows for optimal digestion and energy supply. Most authorities recommend small pre-game meals that provide to 1, calories.

This meal should be sufficient but not excessive, so as to prevent both hunger and undigested food.

The meal should be high in starch, which breaks down more easily than protein and fats. The starch should be in the form of complex carbohydrates breads, cold cereal, pasta, fruits and vegetables.

They are digested at a rate that provides consistent energy to the body and are emptied from the stomach in two to three hours. High-sugar foods lead to a rapid rise in blood sugar, followed by a decline in blood sugar and less energy.

In addition, concentrated sweets can draw fluid into the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to dehydration, cramping, nausea and diarrhea. This may lead to premature exhaustion of glycogen stores in endurance events.

Pregame meals should be low in fat. Fat takes longer to digest, as does fiber- and lactose-containing meals. Take in adequate fluids during this pre-game time. Carefully consider caffeine consumption cola, coffee, tea , as it may lead to dehydration by increasing urine production.

It is important to eat familiar foods before an event, so it is known that they can be tolerated before exercise. Smaller meals should be consumed if less time remains before an event. If a competition is less than two hours away, athletes may benefit from consuming a liquid pre-game meal to avoid gastrointestinal distress.

A liquid meal will move out of the stomach by the time a meet or match begins. Remember to include water with this meal. Regardless of age, gender or sport, the post-game competition meal recommendations are the same.

Following a training session or competition, a small meal eaten within thirty minutes is very beneficial. The meal should be mixed, meaning it contains carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

Protein synthesis is greatest during the window of time immediately following a workout and carbohydrates will help replete diminished glycogen stores.

However, consume food within the 30 minute window may be difficult for athletes—they often experience nausea or lack of hunger. Options to address this difficulty include:. Athletes should be wary of ergogenic aids, which claim to enhance athletic performance. Many of these claims are unsubstantiated, and some aids may be dangerous or hinder performance.

It is crucial to maintain nutritious eating not only for athletic events, but all the time. A pre-game meal or special diet for several days prior to competition cannot make up for inadequate nutrition in previous months or years.

Lifelong nutrition habits must be emphasized. Combining good eating practices with a good training and conditioning program will allow any athlete to maximize their performance.

American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 3 , Grana, W. Advances in Sports Medicine and Fitness Vol 2. Chicago, IL: Year Book Medical Publishers.

Mahan, L. Louis, MO: Saunders. Ormsbee, M. Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance. Nutrients, 6 5 , Phillips, S.

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