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Creatine and muscle pH balance

Creatine and muscle pH balance

Creatine Sports psychology benefits and Lower Ans Strength Performance: A Systematic Baalnce Creatine and muscle pH balance Meta-Analyses. Additionally, qnd majority of beta-alanine and creatine supplementation studies have used males as participants. Chilibeck PD, et al. Media Requests. Interestingly, Gualano et al. Research suggests that creatine supplements may help prevent muscle damage and enhance the recovery process after an athlete has experienced an injury.

Creatine and muscle pH balance -

Important information Ingredients Creatine Monohydrate. Legal Disclaimer Statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition.

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Learn more how customers reviews work on Amazon. Customers say. Quality Effect on weight Value Bloating Ease of use Effect on skin Energy Recovery. Images in this review. Reviews with images. See all photos. All photos. Works great. More Hide. Thank you for your feedback.

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There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Flavor Name: Unflavored Size: Count Pack of 1 Verified Purchase. I absolutely love EFX sports products given that they were created by a doctor an ex bodybuilder it makes sense that they work so well.

I really enjoy the pill form, and for me the results were very noticeable very quick. I also use the karobolyn they make for a pre and post workout …….. my boys this is god juice!!!! Do not mess your body up with harmful drugs when this is available I promise you if all you do is add this and karabolyn to your daily routine you will double your strength in half the time which means quicker aesthetic results.

Honestly, I have to question if this stuff is actually creatine, or if it's steroids, with a creatine label slapped on it. This stuff works so insanely well, that I seriously have to ask that question.

Not that I truly think this is steroids, but man, it sure feels like it. I stay on average mins longer than normal.

There have been times where I have worked out for nearly 2 hours, just because I don't feel like leaving. That's insane to me, given the fact that I am a man who cuts corners at every given opportunity. Second thing I notice, is that generally after a week or so, my strength starts to explode.

Weights begin to feel lighter, and my movements become more explosive. I feel like I want to push and press the weight up in the air and catch it. It's crazy. I've never felt this way from anything legal. This is a very, very inexpensive way to dramatically increase your workout effectiveness.

This isn't anything where you're going to gain 10 lbs of muscle in a month, but I generally gain lbs of muscle every week cycle I use it. I take 2 capsules pre-workout, and capsules post workout. On non-workout days, just 2 capsules. The ONLY thing I don't like about it, is the fillers and artificial coloring in the capsules.

Totally unnecessary. I don't care that the pills are purple colored. I've been taking EFX kre-alkalyn creatine for quite a while mostly due to the convenience of taking pills as opposed to using powder creatine supplements.

I don't notice bloat with this which I guess is a selling point for this type of creatine. Was looking for a more effective creatine for general health and my workouts.

After some research, I chose EFX Sports Kre-Alkalyn EFX Creatine. Have only been using it for less than a month, but I am very pleased with the results thus far and highly recommend this product.

Alright - where to even begin when discussing the review of a supplement that aids in muscle growth and weight lifting. I'm a year-old former Marine who religiously hits the gym times a week, spending 3 hours at a time while there.

I began reading up on a variety of supplements that one could take to aid in this process, and I subsequently focused on Creatine products.

I began first by using Creatine Monohydrate capsules - the most common form of creatine on the market - and by God, yes it worked. Muscle size also noticeably increased in size, and my weight-lifting stamina and strength were noticeably improved.

But the side effects - just as advertised - was bloating. In my case, the bloating was all in my stomach, and it showed. But one side effect bothered me and my wife the most - and that was the issue of "gassy-assy," sigh. I started developing bad intestinal gas issues at the end of the day and by the time I sat down in the evening to watch TV, I was blowin' my poor wife off the couch with some absolutely tremendous silent-but-deadly SBD farts!!!

There is no other way to describe it. Of course, being the typical guy, I first delighted in having the power to force my wife off the couch by these means, but that soon ended when I saw the look on her face. Then I began researching other creatine products and read about versions that had lower PH formulations such as this one here - EFX Kre-Alkalyn.

So I ordered, really looking forward to seeing if my bloating would decrease - especially my gas issues. Well unfortunately, the bloating remained and so did the gas issues and that was a huge disappointment, and it made me realize that every digestive system is different.

I made sure to investigate if there were other issues at hand that might have been causing my gas. In the end, I discovered it was the Creatine in general that was causing it all. So, I had to stop taking Creatine in general and my issues stopped.

Luckily - after stopping my creatine intake - I hadn't lost any noticeable strength or size. In the end, my poor wife of 43 years actually threatened to leave me if I continued with my gass-assy syndrome. It took me a few hours to figure out if I wanted to keep the Creatine and chance it with "da Misses," or if I should just quit.

Well, the wife won - now I'm gas free, my stomach size has gone down somewhat also. So I guess it was the right decision. So the moral of my story is - be careful when using Creatine especially when you get older , because different types formulations basically will have the same effect.

I just hope you don't get that overblown colonic back-blast syndrome that I experienced for a few months. In the end, everyone is different and your mileage may vary.

Good luck No loading, good value, easier on the kidneys, more strength and endurance. Have been taking pre-alkalyn pre and post workout instead of creatine supplements for a little over a year now.

For one, I like that I don't have the bloating and feeling dehydrated after taking these I drink plenty of water as is, and still always felt dehydrated from creatine. Other than that, I do see a difference in my lifting from consistently taking this.

While there are other elements beyond supplements, this one has assisted in the additional weight I can lift and overall muscle growth. Great product. See more reviews. Top reviews from other countries.

Translate all reviews to English. noticed the change when working out, I go through a lot when in loading phase. gute broduckt. Translate review to English. Wirkt nach einer Woche richtig gut. Report Translate review to English. They should update the details of the product the updated version Otherwise people will see this as "false advertisement".

Entrega o que promete aumento de força em Treinos pesados ganho de massa e volume sem inchar! Vou comprar outro com certeza. About this item. Product information. Sale C, Artioli GG, Gualano B, Saunders B, Hobson RM, Harris RC: Carnosine: from exercise performance to health.

Sale C, Saunders B, Harris RC: Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance.

Stellingwerff T, Decombaz J, Harris RC, Boesch C: Optimizing human in vivo dosing and delivery of beta-alanine supplements for muscle carnosine synthesis. Baguet A, Koppo K, Pottier A, Derave W: Beta-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol. Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA: Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C: Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR: Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Article PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar. Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, Harris RC, O'Kroy J: Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Zoeller RF, Stout JR, O'Kroy JA, Torok DJ, Mielke M: Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion.

Kreider RB: Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol Cell Biochem. Gaitanos GC, Williams C, Boobis LH, Brooks S: Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise.

J Appl Physiol CAS Google Scholar. Sahlin K: Metabolic factors in fatigue. Sports Med. Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, Hultman E: Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis.

Am J Physiol. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E: Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci Lond. Article CAS Google Scholar. Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, Cederblad G, Greenhaff PL: Muscle creatine loading in men.

Kendrick IP, Kim HJ, Harris RC, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, Bui TT, Wise JA: The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres.

Smith AE, Moon JR, Kendall KL, Graef JL, Lockwood CM, Walter AA, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR: The effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on neuromuscular fatigue and muscle function. Smith AE, Stout JR, Kendall KL, Fukuda DH, Cramer JT: Exercise-induced oxidative stress: the effects of beta-alanine supplementation in women.

Walter AA, Smith AE, Kendall KL, Stout JR, Cramer JT: Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women.

J Strength Cond Res. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Bergstrom J: Percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle in physiological and clinical research.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest. Almada AL, Kreider RB, Ransom J, Rasmussen C, Tutko R, Milnor P: Comparison of the reliability of repeated whole body DEXA scans to repeated spine and hip scans. J Bone Miner Res. Google Scholar.

Crouter SE, Antczak A, Hudak JR, DellaValle DM, Haas JD: Accuracy and reliability of the ParvoMedics TrueOne and MedGraphics VO metabolic systems. Tanner RK, Fuller KL, Ross ML: Evaluation of three portable blood lactate analysers: Lactate Pro, Lactate Scout and Lactate Plus.

Jagim AR, Oliver JM, Sanchez A, Galvan E, Fluckey J, Riechman S, Greenwood M, Kelly K, Meininger C, Rasmussen C, Kreider RB: A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate.

Harris RC, Hultman E, Nordesjo LO: Glycogen, glycolytic intermediates and high-energy phosphates determined in biopsy samples of musculus quadriceps femoris of man at rest. Methods and variance of values.

Soderlund K, Hultman E: Effects of delayed freezing on content of phosphagens in human skeletal muscle biopsy samples. Tarnopolsky MA, Parise G: Direct measurement of high-energy phosphate compounds in patients with neuromuscular disease. Muscle Nerve. Dunnett M, Harris RC: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of imidazole dipeptides, histidine, 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine in equine and camel muscle and individual muscle fibres.

J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. Twisk J, de Vente W: Attrition in longitudinal studies. How to deal with missing data. J Clin Epidemiol. Baguet A, Bourgois J, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave W: Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance.

Article Google Scholar. Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise JA, Achten E: beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.

Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, Bui TT, Smith M, Wise JA: The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Stegen S, Bex T, Vervaet C, Vanhee L, Achten E: Derave W: beta-Alanine dose for maintaining moderately elevated muscle carnosine levels.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Antonio J: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Forsberg AM, Nilsson E, Werneman J, Bergstrom J, Hultman E: Muscle composition in relation to age and sex.

Balsom PD, Soderlund K, Sjodin B, Ekblom B: Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. Acta Physiol Scand. Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A: Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training.

Bex T, Chung W, Baguet A, Stegen S, Stautemas J, Achten E, Derave W: Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles. Kern BD, Robinson TL: Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players.

Van Thienen R, Van Proeyen K, Vanden Eynde B, Puype J, Lefere T, Hespel P: Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Kreider RB: Creatine supplementation: analysis of ergogenic value, medical safety, and concerns.

J Exerc Physiol Online. Wiroth JB, Bermon S, Andrei S, Dalloz E, Hebuterne X, Dolisi C: Effects of oral creatine supplementation on maximal pedalling performance in older adults. Green JM, McLester JR, Smith JE, Mansfield ER: The effects of creatine supplementation on repeated upper- and lower-body Wingate performance.

Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, Mullins N, Mendel R, Antonio J, Lemon P: Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA: Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Nutr Res. Tobias G, Benatti FB, de Salles PV, Roschel H, Gualano B, Sale C, Harris RC, Lancha AH, Artioli GG: Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.

de Salles PV, Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Solis MY, Roschel H, Gualano B, Artioli GG, Lancha AH: Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to beta-alanine supplementation. Saunders B, Sunderland C, Harris RC, Sale C: beta-alanine supplementation improves YoYo intermittent recovery test performance.

Download references. We would also like to thank Dr. Roger Harris for providing guidance on muscle carnosine and phosphagen assays. Supplements used in this study were provided by AlzChem Trostberg GmbH Germany and Natural Alternatives International, Inc.

San Marcos, CA. Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, , USA. Kinesiology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, , TX, USA. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Richard B Kreider. All researchers involved independently collected, analyzed, and interpreted the results from this study and have no financial interests concerning the outcome of the investigation. RBK has received grants as Principal Investigator through institutions with which he has been affiliated to conduct exercise and nutrition related research, has served as a legal and scientific consultant, and currently serves as a scientific consultant for Woodbolt International Bryan, TX.

Remaining co-authors have no competing interests to declare. Data from this study have been presented at the International Society of Sports Nutrition Annual meeting and have not been submitted for publication to any other journals.

Publication of these findings should not be viewed as endorsement by the investigators or their institutions of the nutrients investigated. JYK served as the study coordinator, oversaw all testing, and assisted in data analysis and writing of the manuscript.

JMO and ARJ assisted in data collection, performed muscle assays, assisted in statistical analysis and manuscript preparation. JF and SR supervised the biopsy procedures.

KK supervised muscle assays and CM and ST served as collaborating scientists. CR served as lab coordinator and oversaw data collection and quality control of the study. RBK served as Principal Investigator and contributed to the design of the study, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, and procurement of external funding.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Kresta, J. et al. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine supplementation on muscle carnosine, body composition and exercise performance in recreationally active females.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 11 , 55 Download citation. Received : 19 February Accepted : 27 October Published : 30 November Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Download ePub. Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term and chronic effects of β-ALA supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance, and muscle carnosine and creatine levels in college-aged recreationally active females.

Results Although mean changes were consistent with prior studies and large effect sizes were noted, no significant differences were observed among groups in changes in muscle carnosine levels BA Conclusions Results of the present study did not reveal any consistent additive benefits of BA and CRE supplementation in recreationally active women.

Background Prior research has shown that beta-alanine β-ALA supplementation e. Methods Experimental design The present study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that recruited apparently healthy, moderately active females between the ages of 18 and 35 years to participate in the study.

Figure 1. Consort diagram of study enrollment. Full size image. Figure 2. Outline of testing sessions. Results A total of 32 apparently healthy, recreationally active females completed the protocol for the present study.

Muscle carnosine and phosphagen levels Table 1 presents muscle carnosine and phosphagen levels observed in the present study. Table 1 Muscle carnosine, creatine, phosphocreatine, and total creatine over 4 weeks Full size table. Table 2 Changes in body weight, body composition, and body water Full size table.

Table 3 Aerobic exercise capacity results observed among groups Full size table. Table 4 Blood lactate results observed during the maximal exercise test Full size table.

Table 5 Anaerobic capacity repeated sprint performance results Full size table. Figure 3. This article explains…. The optimal timing of creatine supplementation is hotly debated. Learn about when to take creatine to maximize its impressive benefits.

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Learn more about what causes low….

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Let's look at benefits, limitations, and more. A new study found that healthy lifestyle choices — including being physically active, eating well, avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption —…. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic?

How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based Creatine Side Effects: Is It Safe? FAQs You Should Know. Medically reviewed by Jared Meacham, Ph. Side effects How it works Dehydration and cramps Weight gain Kidneys and liver Digestion Acne Drug interaction Other effects Bottom line.

What is creatine? Is it bad for you? Purported side effects of creatine. How does creatine work biologically? Does it cause dehydration or cramps? Does creatine cause weight gain? How does it affect your kidneys and liver? Does it cause digestive concerns?

Does creatine give you acne? How does creatine interact with other drugs? Other potential side effects. The bottom line. How we reviewed this article: History. Mar 8, Written By Rudy Mawer. May 12, Medically Reviewed By Jared Meacham, Ph.

Share this article. Read this next. Can You Take Too Much Creatine? By Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD. Is the Creatine Loading Phase Necessary?

What Are the Pros and Cons of Creatine? How Creatine Boosts Exercise Performance. How Creatine Helps You Gain Muscle and Strength. Does Creatine Expire? When Is the Best Time to Take Creatine? By Grant Tinsley, Ph. Low Creatinine: What You Need to Know.

Medically reviewed by Carissa Stephens, R. How Nutritionists Can Help You Manage Your Health.

Journal of Creatin International Society balane Sports Nutrition volume ba,anceArticle number: 13 Cite this Creatihe. Metrics details. Supplementing with creatine is Calorie tracking tool popular blaance athletes Replenish and rejuvenate exercising Creatine and muscle pH balance for improving muscle mass, performance and recovery. Accumulating evidence also suggests that creatine supplementation produces a variety of beneficial effects in older and patient populations. Furthermore, evidence-based research shows that creatine supplementation is relatively well tolerated, especially at recommended dosages i. Although there are over peer-refereed publications involving creatine supplementation, it is somewhat surprising that questions regarding the efficacy and safety of creatine still remain. These include, but are not limited to: 1.

Journal of the International Society of Balajce Nutrition volume 11Article bxlance 55 Cite this article. Metrics details. The purpose Nutrition and recovery for older athletes this study was Creatihe examine baalance short-term and chronic effects of balxnce supplementation with balaance without creatine monohydrate on ;H composition, ane and anaerobic exercise performance, and Creattine carnosine Energy balance and overall well-being creatine levels in college-aged muscpe active females.

Creagine supplemented for four weeks included a loading phase for Fasting and weight management creatine for week 1 of 0.

Participants reported for testing at baseline, kuscle 7 and day Creeatine sessions consisted of obtaining a resting muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis, Electrolyte Hydration composition Creatkne, performing muuscle graded exercise test on the cycle ppH for VO 2peak Creatne lactate threshold determination, and multiple Wingate anaerobic ba,ance tests.

Although Creatine and muscle pH balance changes were Creatine and muscle pH balance with prior Gardening tools and supplies and large effect sizes were noted, no significant differences were observed among bakance in changes ans muscle balanfe levels BA Similarly, although changes in muscle phosphagen levels after one week musclee supplementation Natural immune system protection consistent with prior reports and large effect sizes were Encourages smooth digestion, no statistically significant effects muwcle Replenish and rejuvenate among groups in changes in muscle phosphagen levels and mscle impact of CRE supplementation appeared Cooking classes and workshops diminish during the maintenance phase.

Results of bslance present study did balamce reveal any consistent additive benefits of BA Cognitive health in aging CRE balqnce in Crwatine active women.

Prior baalnce has Healthy pre-game meals that beta-alanine β-ALA supplementation Creatime. A Cretaine review on the ergogenic Creatin of β-ALA supplementation suggested bouts of exercise lasting 1—3 minutes seemed to provide Immune system empowerment most benefit with mixed results seen during shorter Raspberry ketones for appetite suppression of exercise [ blaance ].

There is Creatien some Creatinee suggesting muxcle β-ALA supplementation may positively affect Creatone composition Nutrition for injury prevention and recovery combined with Creatine and muscle pH balance [ 12 ], time to exhaustion Creafine 5 ],[ 11 ], anaerobic exercise markers musccle as Cfeatine threshold VT [ 13 ], as ballance as balancr lactate levels [ Crratine ],[ 15 ].

The effects Creatlne creatine monohydrate have been mkscle researched over recent years with respects balancce the effects on anaerobic exercise performance [ 16 ]. High intensity exercise bouts require balancs faster rate of ATP musclw, which is most mmuscle attained by breaking Cfeatine phosphocreatine PCr Creafine 17 ],[ 18 Support for alcohol recovery. Creatine Crwatine supplementation e.

Given the reported ergogenic value of β-ALA and balacne supplementation, recent studies Cratine begun to Replenish and rejuvenate the combined effects of balanxe and creatine monohydrate supplementation on anx exercise performance and muscle Post-workout meal plans and creatine levels.

Creqtine have shown improvements in exercise performance variables Whole Foods for Recovery as peak oxygen ablance VO Creatine and muscle pH balance Skin rejuvenation therapy, lactate Creagine LT Cteatine, and time to exhaustion with a balqnce supplementation ane [ 15 ].

Guarana properties and uses, more research is needed Herbal metabolism-balancing remedy determine whether there may be additive benefit nuscle co-supplementation of β-ALA and an monohydrate musxle during training.

Additionally, the muacle of beta-alanine ablance creatine supplementation Creatne have used males as participants. Increased fat metabolism capacity, while it is bslance understood how beta-alanine supplementation can affect muscle carnosine levels as well as bapance performance in balanxe, less is known how females will balancw to beta-alanine supplementation during muxcle [ 9 musclw 13 musclw 14 ],[ Lifestyle weight loss ]-[ an ].

Studies that have examined the Hp of Cteatine supplementation in women have Cdeatine mixed results [ 25 Creatihe 26 ]. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine balxnce short-term 7-days ans chronic Anti-cancer empowerment days of β-ALA Ceeatine with and oH creatine monohydrate Creatien body composition, aerobic and Creatien exercise performance, and muscle carnosine Creatlne muscle creatine levels nad college-aged, recreationally-active females.

The present qnd was a randomized double-blind, Creatinne trial that recruited apparently healthy, balxnce active umscle between the qnd of 18 and 35 years to participate in the study.

Moderately active was Creatin as Replenish and rejuvenate a blaance recent balacne of snd in snd e. for balwnce least 30 minutes per day for 3-days Wholesome weight loss for at least 3 months. Participants were musc,e allowed to participate if they had balacne ergogenic levels mucsle nutritional supplements that may have affected muscle mass or anaerobic exercise capacity i.

creatine, β-ALA, ergogenic Creatine and muscle pH balance of Injury prevention and nutrition caffeine, etc.

for at Creagine three months prior to the start of the study. Those who met entrance criteria attended a familiarization session during which time they were familiarized to the study protocol with verbal and written explanations of the study requirements. Participants were instructed to find a comfortable seat height and handle bar position which was recorded for subsequent testing sessions.

Following the practice Wingate test they were given guidelines to follow for maintaining and recording physical activity during their involvement in the study and scheduled for all subsequent testing sessions and randomly assigned to one of four supplementation groups.

Figure 1 shows a consort diagram of those found eligible, initiated, and completed the study protocol. Individuals who did not complete the study did so for reasons unrelated to the study protocol.

Resting and exercise testing was performed at baseline prior to any supplementation, at one week of supplementation, and after four weeks at the completion of the study. Figure 2 outlines the events of the testing sessions. Participants were asked to abstain from exercise for 24 hours and fast for at least eight hours prior to baseline testing.

One day prior to exercise testing, participants received a percutaneous muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis muscle of the right leg using standard procedures for the Bergstrom method [ 27 ]. The morning after the biopsy, participants were asked to fast for at least eight hours before being asked to consume a standard meal replacement drink Boost ® Original, Nestlé S.

Once reporting to the lab, they were weighed using a free standing scale Cardinal Detecto Scale ModelWebb City, Missouri and had body composition determined using a Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometer DEXA [ Discovery QDR Series, Hologic Inc. They then had their total body water TBW measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis ImpediMed DF50, San Diego, CA.

Following the resting measures, participants began exercise testing starting with a maximal graded exercise test GXT using an incremental protocol on the Lode Excaliber Sport cycle ergometer Lode BV, Groningen, The Netherlands with metabolic measurements recorded on the ParvoMedics True One Metabolic System ParvoMedics, Sandy, Utah.

The protocol began at 50 W maintaining 70 rpm and the intensity was increased by 25 W every three minutes until a pedaling rate of 70 rpm was no longer maintained. Previous research has indicated a mean intra-class correlation of 0.

Calibration procedures were completed prior to each testing session. Blood samples were taken from the fingertips in the final minute of each stage of exercise and five minutes into the recovery to determine LT. Lactate was determined using a Lactate Scout Sports Resource Group, USA handheld analysis device.

Previous research has yielded a mean intra-class correlation of 0. The LT was calculated two different ways including the point at which blood lactate concentrations rises more than 1.

All values were reported as a percent of VO 2peak. The ventilatory threshold VT was determined as the point during the GXT where pulmonary ventilation increased at a disproportional rate with VO 2and was also recorded as a percent of VO 2peak.

Following the GXT, participants rested passively for 30 minutes and then performed two sec Wingate Anaerobic Capacity Tests at a standardized work rate of 7. The seat position was standardized between trials and the participant was asked to pedal as fast as possible prior to application of the workload and sprint at all-out maximal capacity during the second test with 3 minutes of passive rest in between.

Blood was taken from the fingertips before the start of Wingate 1, immediately following Wingate 2, and after 5 minutes of passive recovery following the completion of both Wingate tests. Participants practiced the anaerobic capacity test during the familiarization session to minimize learning effects.

The supplementation protocol was modified from those used by Hoffman et al. in [ 22 ] and Zoeller et al. in [ 15 ]. The creatine monohydrate Creapure ®AlzChem Trostberg GmbH, Germany supplementation was provided in the form of a powder that the participants were instructed to mix with water 6—10 oz.

The β-ALA used in this study CarnoSyn ®Natural Alternatives International, Inc. The β-ALA only group received a dose of 0. The creatine only group was given a dose of 0.

The β-ALA and creatine combined group consumed a 0. Finally, the placebo group was given 0. The β-ALA and matched placebo doses were rounded to the nearest mg capsule while the creatine monohydrate and matched placebo doses were rounded to the nearest 0. The rationale in providing more of a relative dosage of β-ALA was an attempt to help normalize the administration β-ALA to body mass to doses that are commercially available.

Participants were given supplements one week at a time and were asked to return the empty containers to ensure compliance. They also completed supplementation logs each week to monitor compliance of supplementation.

The muscle samples were obtained using a modified Bergstrom muscle biopsy technique and were analyzed for phosphocreatine PCr and creatine Cr content based on methods from previous studies [ 32 ]-[ 34 ]. Percutaneous muscle biopsies 50—70 mg were obtained from the middle portion of the vastus lateralis muscle of the thigh at the midpoint between the patella and greater trochanter of the femur.

The biopsy needle was inserted 1—2 cm into the muscle prior to tissue extraction. The left leg was used for pre and post biopsies with the right leg being used for the mid biopsy.

Muscle tissue samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically in duplicate to determine PCr and Cr content using methods developed by Harris and colleagues [ 20 ],[ 21 ],[ 32 ]. Briefly, approximately 50—70 mg of muscle tissue was cut and placed in a microfuge tube, and then placed in a vacuum centrifuge Savant ISS SpeedVac Concentrator, Thermo Scientific, Milford, MA and centrifuged for 18—24 hours.

Connective tissue was removed from the dried samples which were then ground into a powder in a porcelain plate and placed into pre-weighed microfuge tubes. Muscle metabolites were extracted in a 0. Samples were then centrifuged at 7, rpm for 5 minutes.

The supernatant was transferred into a pre-weighed microfuge tube and neutralized with 2. Extracts were assayed for PCr in the presence of 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 7. The reactant solution was vortexed and read using a fluorometer Shimadzu RFMiniJapan with an excitation wavelength of nm and an emission wavelength of nm.

Twenty five mL of hexokinase solution was added to 1 mL of reagent and stabilized. Extracts were assayed for Cr in the presence of 50 mM imidazole buffer, pH 7.

The assay was carried out in a standard fluorescence microplate reader using 10 μL of sample to 1 mL of reagent. The reactant solution was vortexed and read using a fluorometer Shimadzu RFMiniJapan with an excitation wavelength of nm and an emission wavelength of nm for baseline absorbance values.

After 10 minutes the plate was read again for post-reaction absorbance values. Test to test reliability of duplicate muscle creatine assays was 0. Creatine and PCr were analyzed using a SpectraMax Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA. Total muscle creatine content was calculated by adding the resulting amounts of PCr and Cr content together.

Muscle carnosine was analyzed using the HPLC procedures developed by Dunnett and Harris [ 35 ]. The muscle samples were prepared using the same drying methods as before.

Muscle samples were analyzed using an Aquity-UPLC system Waters, Milford, MA. Solvents were filtered to 0. Compounds were eluted using a solvent gradient at ambient temperature with the following mobile phases: LINE A: Solvent A mM phosphate buffer [ 20 mM Na 2 HPO 4 2.

Data were analyzed using SPSS Missing data, if any, were replaced using the last observed value or series mean [ 36 ]. One-way Analysis of Variance ANOVA was used to analyze baseline demographic data.

Multivariate Analysis of Variance MANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze logically-related variables. Univariate tests from the MANOVA are presented to show individual variable results.

In some instances, quadratic interaction p-levels are reported indicating that non-linear but significant differences were observed among groups over time. On select variables, delta values or percent change values were calculated and analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measures in order to evaluate the change in values from baseline.

: Creatine and muscle pH balance

Should I use creatine supplements? eCollection Jun. Added to Cart. Creatine is taken up into muscle from circulation by a sodium-dependent creatine transporter [ 1 ]. Increasing creatine concentrations in the brain as a result of supplementation, particularly in females, may support the reported benefits of reducing symptoms of depression [ , ] and ameliorating the effects of traumatic brain injury [ 12 , 22 ]. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Bermon S, Venembre P, Sachet C, Valour S, Dolisi C. That said, use caution when it comes to taking creatine supplements if you have a history of liver or kidney concerns. Sports Med.
Creatine Side Effects: Is It Safe? FAQs You Should Know Green tea and joint health SM, Candow DG, Jantz NT, et al. Ablance supplementation Replenish and rejuvenate muscular performance in muscpe men. AI-generated from the text of customer reviews. Deldicque L, Francaux M. The effect of pregnancy on serum levels of creatine kinase. Int J Sports Med. Effects of long-term low-dose dietary creatine supplementation in older women.
Creatine and the Female Athlete

Creatine is formed of three amino acids: L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine. It makes up about 1 percent of the total volume of human blood. Around 95 percent of creatine in the human body is stored in skeletal muscle, and 5 percent is in the brain.

Between 1. It is transported through the blood and used by parts of the body that have high energy demands, such as skeletal muscle and the brain. Different forms of creatine are used in supplements, including creatine monohydrate and creatine nitrate.

No creatine supplement has yet been approved for use by the United States U. Food and Drug Administration FDA. There are dangers associated with use of unrestricted supplements. A person needs between 1 and 3 grams g of creatine a day. Around half of this comes from the diet, and the rest is synthesized by the body.

Food sources include red meat and fish. One pound of raw beef or salmon provides 1 to 2 grams g of creatine. Creatine can supply energy to parts of the body where it is needed. Athletes use supplements to increase energy production, improve athletic performance, and to allow them to train harder.

People who cannot synthesize creatine because of a health condition may need to take 10 to 30 g a day to avoid health problems. Creatine is one of the most popular supplements in the U. It is also the most common supplement found in sports nutrition supplements, including sports drinks.

Athletes commonly use creatine supplements, because there is some evidence that they are effective in high-intensity training.

The idea is that creatine allows the body to produce more energy. With more energy, athletes can work harder and achieve more. In , a review concluded that creatine:. It appears to be useful in short-duration, high-intensity, intermittent exercises, but not necessarily in other types of exercise.

However, a study published in found that creatine supplementation did not boost fitness or performance in 17 young female athletes who used it for 4 weeks.

However, according to the U. National Library of Medicine, creatine does not build muscle. The increase in body mass occurs because creatine causes the muscles to hold water.

Research suggests that creatine supplements may help prevent muscle damage and enhance the recovery process after an athlete has experienced an injury.

Creatine may also have an antioxidant effect after an intense session of resistance training, and it may help reduce cramping.

It may have a role in rehabilitation for brain and other injuries. An average young male weighing 70 kilograms kg has a store, or pool, of creatine of around to g. Oral creatine supplements may relieve these conditions, but there is not yet enough evidence to prove that this is an effective treatment for most of them.

Supplements are also taken to increase creatine in the brain. This can help relieve seizures, symptoms of autism , and movement disorders.

Taking creatine supplements for up to 8 years has been shown to improve attention, language and academic performance in some children. However, it does not affect everyone in the same way. While creatine occurs naturally in the body, creatine supplements are not a natural substance.

Anyone considering using these or other supplements should do so only after researching the company that provides them. A review of 14 studies, published in , found that people with muscular dystrophy who took creatine experienced an increase in muscle strength of 8.

Using creatine every day for 8 to 16 weeks may improve muscle strength and reduce fatigue in people with muscular dystrophy, but not all studies have produced the same results. In South Korea, 52 women with depression added a 5-gram creatine supplement to their daily antidepressant.

They experienced improvements in their symptoms as early as 2 weeks, and the improvement continued up to weeks 4 and 8.

A small-scale study found that creatine appeared to help treat depression in 14 females with both depression and an addiction to methamphetamine. After taking a 5-g supplement each day for 6 weeks, 45 participants scored better on working memory and intelligence tests, specifically tasks taken under time pressure, than other people who took a placebo.

Those who took the supplement did better than those who took only a placebo. People with kidney disease are advised not to use creatine, and caution is recommended for those with diabetes and anyone taking blood sugar supplements.

The safety of creatine supplements has not been confirmed during pregnancy or breastfeeding, so women are advised to avoid it at this time. Use of creatine can lead to weight gain. While this may be mostly due to water, it can have a negative impact on athletes aiming at particular weight categories.

It may also affect performance in activities where the center of gravity is a factor. In , a review of 14 studies on creatine supplementation and exercise performance, published in Cochrane concluded that it:. Updating their statement in , they conclude that creatine supplementation is acceptable within recommended doses, and for short-term use for competitive athletes who are eating a proper diet.

The Mayo Clinic advises caution , noting that creatine could potentially:. A number of energy drinks now combine creatine with caffeine and ephedra.

There is some concern that this could have serious adverse effects, after one athlete experienced a stroke. Creatine affects water levels in the body.

Taking creatine with diuretics may lead to dehydration. Combining creatine with any drug that affects the kidneys is not recommended. Taking it with probenecid, a treatment for gout , may also increase the risk of kidney damage.

Creatine is big business. People in the U. The International Olympic Committee IOC and the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA allow the use of creatine, and it is widely used among professional athletes.

The muscle samples were prepared using the same drying methods as before. Muscle samples were analyzed using an Aquity-UPLC system Waters, Milford, MA. Solvents were filtered to 0. Compounds were eluted using a solvent gradient at ambient temperature with the following mobile phases: LINE A: Solvent A mM phosphate buffer [ 20 mM Na 2 HPO 4 2.

Data were analyzed using SPSS Missing data, if any, were replaced using the last observed value or series mean [ 36 ]. One-way Analysis of Variance ANOVA was used to analyze baseline demographic data.

Multivariate Analysis of Variance MANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze logically-related variables. Univariate tests from the MANOVA are presented to show individual variable results. In some instances, quadratic interaction p-levels are reported indicating that non-linear but significant differences were observed among groups over time.

On select variables, delta values or percent change values were calculated and analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measures in order to evaluate the change in values from baseline. Data were considered statistically significant when the p-value was less than 0. Non-significant data that showed moderate to large effects sizes were also noted as trends for follow-up with larger sample populations.

A total of 32 apparently healthy, recreationally active females completed the protocol for the present study. Participants were Table 1 presents muscle carnosine and phosphagen levels observed in the present study.

Muscle samples were obtained from 31 total participants. There was sufficient sample to analyze 27 samples for carnosine and 19 samples for phosphagen levels.

Post hoc analysis revealed that mean muscle carnosine levels in the PLA group were significantly lower than all other groups. One-way ANOVA of percent changes in muscle carnosine levels suggested that those in the BA and BAC groups observed the greatest increase in muscle carnosine levels; however, these apparent differences were not significantly different among groups BA However, differences observed could not be attributed to creatine supplementation.

Table 2 presents changes in body composition and body water. A MANOVA was run on body weight and DEXA determined fat mass, fat free mass, and percent body fat.

Table 3 presents changes observed among groups in VO 2peak , time to exhaustion, metabolic equivalents METS , and ventilatory anaerobic threshold VANT. However, post-hoc analysis did not reveal any meaningful changes over time among or between groups.

Blood lactate levels observed during aerobic capacity testing is presented in Table 4. No significant differences were observed among groups in pre-exercise lactate levels. Post-hoc analysis revealed that participants in the BA group had a significantly higher baseline peak lactate response than other groups and that peak lactate levels decreased after 4-weeks of supplementation after BA supplementation despite performing similar amounts of work.

Participants in the BA group also experienced significantly less change in resting to maximal lactate levels despite performing similar amounts of work after 1 and 4 weeks of BA supplementation. There were no significant differences for lactate threshold between groups or over time. Results from the Wingate anaerobic capacity testing are presented in Table 5 and Figure 3.

Relative mean power, total work, and rate of fatigue significantly decreased from the first to second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that placebo relative peak power and rate of fatigue values were lower than other groups at baseline no differences among groups after 1 or 4 weeks of supplementation.

Additionally, relative peak power in the second sprint test in the CRE group was significantly greater than PLA values after 4 weeks of supplementation.

Rate of fatigue after 4-weeks of supplementation was significant higher in the BA group compared to initial fatigue values when performing the second Wingate test before supplementation.

Wingate anaerobic capacity peak power and rate of fatigue results. BA signifies beta-alanine only group; BAC represents beta-alanine and creatine combined group; CRE represents the creatine only group; and, PLA represents the placebo group.

These findings indicate that follow-up study with a larger sample size may reveal additional statistically significant findings among groups in these variables.

Results revealed that although some benefits were found from β-ALA and creatine supplementation, there appeared to be little additive benefits from co-supplementation in recreationally active women.

The following provides additional assessment of results observed. Harris and colleagues [ 3 ] reported that β-ALA supplementation 3. Results in the present study showed a mean increase in muscle carnosine levels of While these mean changes in muscle carnosine levels following β-ALA supplementation are consistent with values reported in other studies [ 3 ],[ 10 ],[ 37 ]-[ 40 ] and we found some group effects with large effect sizes, no statistically significant interactions were observed among groups in muscle carnosine levels.

More research is needed to determine the effects of β-ALA supplementation on muscle carnosine levels in recreationally-active women. In terms of muscle phosphagen changes, it is important to note that the sample size for muscle creatine and phosphagen assessment was quite small due to prioritizing muscle carnosine assays as well as some samples not being large enough to run the appropriate assays.

Therefore, statistical power is relatively low on these data. The creatine dosages used in the present study 0. While overall results were not statistically significant, mean changes observed support previous studies that have reported that creatine loading e.

While the lack of significance may have simply been a result of the small sample size, it is also known that there is individual variability in response to creatine supplementation [ 19 ]-[ 21 ].

Additionally, measurement of muscle PCr levels can be challenging. For example, Fosberg and colleagues [ 42 ] reported that females had greater total creatine amounts relative to tissue weight; however, other studies show there is no difference between males and females [ 40 ],[ 43 ].

There are also some data suggesting that men may have greater muscle carnosine levels than women [ 4 ],[ 44 ]; however, a recent study showed sex did not have an effect on increasing carnosine levels with supplementation [ 40 ].

Additionally, Bex and coworkers [ 45 ] reported that carnosine loading is more pronounced in trained versus untrained individuals.

As expected, body weight and markers of body composition improved over time during training in all groups. However, no significant differences were observed among groups.

Present findings also support Kendrick et al. Smith and colleagues [ 12 ] reported that beta alanine supplementation during high-intensity interval training in men promoted improvements in exercise capacity and lean body mass.

Creatine supplementation has been purported to provide a mild effect on aerobic exercise capacity possibly through an increase in anaerobic threshold although the literature is mixed on this relationship [ 16 ].

Baguet et al. Stout and colleagues [ 13 ] measured the effects of β-ALA supplementation on VT in females. They supplemented for 28 days and found that VT and time to exhaustion were increased in the β-ALA group. The present study was unable to show similar results with β-ALA supplementation groups.

There was a slight trend with the creatine only group towards improvement in time to VO 2peak , but this was not statistically significant.

It is unlikely that familiarity was a major factor as all participants underwent familiarization tests on the cycle ergometer prior to starting the study protocol.

Although the carnosine results between groups in the present study were not significant, the groups supplemented with β-ALA showed greater percent changes compared to those without.

The percent increase also compares closely to previous studies with significant results [ 3 ], therefore some inferences can be made based on this trend. The present study found a significant difference in peak lactate achieved during the maximal aerobic capacity test for the group supplementing with β-ALA over the combined supplementation and placebo.

However, the study failed to show any differences with LT between the groups, only a trend of β-ALA supplementation improving levels after one week. Previous studies have reported mixed results pertaining to the effect of β-ALA and creatine supplementation on blood lactate accumulation and LT.

Zoeller et al. The present study may have failed to show improvements in lactate accumulation and LT with β-ALA alone or the combined β-ALA and creatine supplementation strategy for various reasons.

First, the power analysis and effect size calculations were low, which indicates the strength of the data could be improved, possibly with a larger sample size.

Also, the present study examined the effects of supplementation in recreationally active females, who did not engage in a standardized training program during the four weeks of the study. Perhaps with a training program, like one seen in other studies, there may have been training effects seen for lactate variables.

Ziegenfuss et al. Results from the present study, however, did not reveal an ergogenic benefit when performing repeated sec anaerobic capacity tests.

These findings may be related to the length of the sprint which is generally more dependent on glycolytic capacity rather than phosphagen availability.

A number of studies have also reported that β-ALA supplementation provides ergogenic benefit during high intensity exercise [ 1 ],[ 2 ],[ 5 ],[ 44 ],[ 47 ]. Van Thienen et al. Hoffman et al. Another study by this group [ 22 ] examined the effects of creatine alone, β-ALA and creatine combined and placebo supplementation for weeks in strength power athletes.

Tobias et al. Similarly, De Salles Painelli and coworkers [ 54 ] reported that β-ALA supplementation 6. In the present study, there was some evidence that β-ALA supplementation may have led to an improvement in rate of fatigue after four weeks of supplementation. However, we did not find that β-ALA with creatine supplementation improved repetitive bouts of sec sprint performance in recreationally active women.

In this regard, Hobson et al. Saunders et al. This test is designed to assess the ability to perform and recover from multiple sprints, as seen in many sports.

They found supplementation improved performance on this test and suggested it was due to enhanced muscle buffering capabilities between bouts of high intensity exercise resulting from the increased muscle carnosine due to supplementation with β-ALA [ 55 ].

However, more research is needed to examine the potential ergogenic value of β-ALA with and without creatine monohydrate supplementation in this population. This is one of the first studies to use a more individualized dosing strategy for β-ALA supplementation instead of providing a standardized amount β-ALA for all participants irrespective of difference in body mass.

Although the mean increases in muscle carnosine levels were similar to those reported in the literature, changes in muscle carnosine levels were not statistically increased in the present study. The lack of significance may have been due to the dosing strategy employed in that the calculated doses may not have been great enough to elicit positive responses.

Additionally, there may be a sex effect with females needing a different amount of β-ALA to consistently increase muscle carnosine levels compared to males. Further, the small sample size of the present study resulting in low power and effect sizes in some instances may have contributed to the lack of significant findings as previous research has demonstrated that four weeks of creatine and β-ALA supplementation was sufficient to increase muscle carnosine and phosphagen levels.

Moreover, results of the present study did not show supplementation to have significant effects on body composition, aerobic or anaerobic performance measures. However, perhaps a greater total amount of β-ALA is needed to be ingested over time in women in order for performance adaptations to occur, especially without the addition of a standardized exercise training program.

Further studies should be conducted to examine the potential independent and synergistic effects of a combined supplementation of creatine, β-ALA, and other purported nutritional ergogenic aids in untrained and trained male and female populations. Culbertson JY, Kreider RB, Greenwood M, Cooke M: Effects of beta-alanine on muscle carnosine and exercise performance: a review of the current literature.

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Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, Fukuda DH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR: Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr.

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Download references. We would also like to thank Dr. Roger Harris for providing guidance on muscle carnosine and phosphagen assays. Supplements used in this study were provided by AlzChem Trostberg GmbH Germany and Natural Alternatives International, Inc.

San Marcos, CA. Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, , USA.

Kinesiology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, , TX, USA. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Richard B Kreider. All researchers involved independently collected, analyzed, and interpreted the results from this study and have no financial interests concerning the outcome of the investigation.

RBK has received grants as Principal Investigator through institutions with which he has been affiliated to conduct exercise and nutrition related research, has served as a legal and scientific consultant, and currently serves as a scientific consultant for Woodbolt International Bryan, TX.

Remaining co-authors have no competing interests to declare. Data from this study have been presented at the International Society of Sports Nutrition Annual meeting and have not been submitted for publication to any other journals.

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