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Antioxidant vitamins

Antioxidant vitamins

For example, vitamin C has antioxidant Detoxification pills when it reduces oxidizing substances such Citrus aurantium for respiratory health hydrogen peroxide; [92] however, Antioxidwnt will also vvitamins metal ions such as iron and copper [93] that generate free radicals through the Fenton reaction. Environmental Research. Vitamin C is also available as an oral supplement, typically in the form of capsules and chewable tablets. Selenium : Rice, corn, wheat, and other whole grains, as well as nuts, eggs, cheese, and legumes.

Antioxidant vitamins -

Since antioxidants neutralize free radicals, taking antioxidant supplements have been speculated to decrease the risk of developing or dying from cancer Several meta-analyses, however, have shown that taking antioxidant supplements does neither reduce the risk of many types of cancers nor reduce the risk of dying from them once diagnosed, In fact, they may even increase the risk of certain cancers 14 , 15 , 16 , In addition, several meta-analyses have found that beta-carotene supplements, a precursor of vitamin A, increases the risk of bladder cancer, and, in people who smoke, the risk of lung cancer as well 18 , 19 , 20 , The exception is selenium , which may help prevent cancer in people with low levels of the mineral or in people with an elevated risk of cancer.

However, more research is needed before selenium can be recommended for this purpose 16 , 22 , 23 , Vitamin A is important for fetal growth and development, but at high doses, vitamin A supplements can increase the risk of birth defects 25 , Therefore, women who might be or are pregnant should not take high doses of vitamin A supplements These supplements are only recommended for pregnant women in areas where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, such as in Africa and Southeast Asia 28 , Beta-carotene, the precursor of vitamin A, is not shown to lead to birth defects.

But since taking the supplement long-term is associated with cancer, pregnant women should consult with their physician before taking beta-carotene supplements 30 , Though antioxidant supplements are generally not recommended for a variety of reasons, the antioxidant vitamin C may benefit people with the common cold or those who smoke.

Vitamin C has not been shown to prevent the common cold , but it may reduce its severity and duration. In addition, higher doses may cause stomach upset Similarly, exposure to secondhand smoke also increases vitamin C needs Yet, this additional need for vitamin C can be easily met through diet and without taking antioxidant supplements.

For the most part, the use of antioxidant supplements is discouraged, though the antioxidant vitamin C can benefit people with the common cold or those who smoke. Still, needs can often be met through diet instead of supplements.

Getting antioxidants from food rather than supplements is much safer and healthier. While animal-based products, such as eggs and dairy products, have antioxidants, plant-based foods are particularly high in them Antioxidants are found in most foods, but plant-based sources such as fruits and vegetables are particularly rich in them.

Antioxidant supplements are commonly considered healthy but can be problematic when taken in excess. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. Some supplements can have powerful effects.

Here is a list of 4 natural supplements that are just as effective as pharmaceutical drugs. Antioxidants are incredibly important, but most people don't really understand what they are.

This article explains it all in human terms. Analytical Biochemistry. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Clinical Chemistry. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta BBA - Biomembranes. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology.

American Family Physician. Risks and consequences in the Normative Aging Study". The American Journal of Medicine. Rejuvenation Research. Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. Retrieved 19 June Journal of the American College of Nutrition.

Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nature Chemical Biology. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. FASEB Journal. Progress in Lipid Research. Cell Metabolism.

Comments on the two accompanying papers: "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action" by A. Azzi and "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more" by M. Traber and J. Current Medicinal Chemistry. Archived from the original on 6 October Life Sciences. A review of novel actions and reactions of vitamin C".

Free Radical Research. Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR.. Environmental Health Perspectives. JSTOR CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. Nature Genetics.

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Retrieved 24 July International Journal of Cancer. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. The British Journal of Nutrition. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Annals of Internal Medicine. Clinical Nutrition. ISSN X.

Forum of Nutrition. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 18 April National Cancer Institute. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Nutrition and Cancer. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 13 June Archived from the original PDF on 29 December Retrieved 24 October Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 5th ed. Oxford University Press.

Lane N Oxygen: The Molecule That Made the World. Pokorny J, Yanishlieva N, Gordon MH Antioxidants in Food: Practical Applications. CRC Press. Butylated hydroxyanisole Butylated hydroxytoluene 2,6-Di- tert -butylphenol 1,2-Diaminopropane 2,4-Dimethyl tert -butylphenol Ethylenediamine.

Folin method ORAC TEAC FRAP. Categories : Anti-aging substances Antioxidants Physiology Process chemicals Redox. Hidden categories: CS1 French-language sources fr Webarchive template wayback links Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Use dmy dates from October Commons category link is on Wikidata Pages that use a deprecated format of the chem tags.

Toggle limited content width. Turbine oils, transformer oils , hydraulic fluids , waxes , and greases. Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines. Jet fuels and gasolines, widely approved for aviation fuels. Ascorbic acid vitamin C. β-carotene : 0. Cocoa bean and chocolate, spinach , turnip and rhubarb [].

Whole grains , maize, legumes []. This study found that supplementation resulted in a 9 percent reduction in total mortality and a 21 percent decrease in deaths from gastric cancer.

The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study 24 measured the effects of vitamin E 50 IU per day and β-carotene 20 mg per day supplementation on lung cancer and CHD. The incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction was lower in all groups receiving supplementation and was significantly lower 32 percent in the group that received vitamin E.

Supplementation with vitamin E was associated with a nonsignificant increase in cerebral hemorrhage.

Supplementation with β-carotene was associated with increased mortality rates for CHD 11 percent and lung cancer 18 percent , as well as an increase in overall mortality 8 percent. The incidence of fatal CHD was significantly higher in the group that received β-carotene alone 75 percent and in the group receiving both vitamins 58 percent.

Vitamin E supplementation is supported by several studies Tables 2 17 — 21 and 3 22 — Increased vitamin E levels are associated with decreased CHD mortality and inversely correlated with risk of angina.

Vitamin E significantly reduced the incidence of overall fatal and nonfatal CHD events by 47 percent and the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction by 77 percent; however, supplementation did not have a significant effect on overall mortality relative risk: 1.

Event reduction was better with supplementation at IU per day, but the study was not powered to assess dose-response significance.

This clinical trial strongly supports evidence that vitamin E in dosages greater than IU per day reduces CHD events. Vitamin C significantly improves arterial vasoreactivity and vitamin E regeneration.

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-I cohort study 29 found an inverse relationship between the highest vitamin C intake diet and supplements and CHD risk over 10 years in 11, U.

men and women 25 to 74 years of age. The only large primary prevention trial has been a study of 29, poorly nourished residents of Linixian, China. The patients who received vitamin C in a dosage of mg per day and molybdenum in a dosage of 30 μg per day demonstrated no significant reduction in total or cerebrovascular mortality.

Many studies have demonstrated the ability of vitamin C to improve arterial vasoreactivity. A single dose 2 g of vitamin C has been found to improve vasoreactivity in chronic smokers, 8 patients with hypercholesterolemia 10 and patients with CHD. Research supports the benefit of a carotenoid-rich diet, but not β-carotene supplementation.

The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial 27 combined β-carotene and retinol supplementation in 18, smokers and patients with asbestos exposure.

However, the study was terminated prematurely because of a significant increase in lung cancer mortality and a non-significant increase in CHD mortality.

In 12 years of β-carotene supplementation in 22, male physicians, no significant beneficial effects on CHD mortality, nonfatal MI or stroke were found.

A non-significant 20 to 30 percent reduction in CHD events occurred in the physicians who had clinical evidence of atherosclerosis. Vitamins C, E and β-carotene have few side effects.

No significant toxicity has been noted for vitamin E in dosages of to 3, IU per day. Therefore, caution is recommended when vitamin E supplementation is used in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.

In vitamin E clinical trials, no significant differences in bleeding rates were noted in supplemented and unsupplemented subjects. Vitamin C supplementation is usually non-toxic, although diarrhea, bloating and false-negative occult blood tests can occur at dosages greater than 2 g per day.

The intestinal absorptive capacity for vitamin C is approximately 3 g per day. However, confusion arises about excess vitamin C intake causing increased oxalic acid excretion and, thus, a possibly increased risk of oxalate kidney stones as urinary vitamin C is converted to oxalate with air exposure.

Given in dosages of 30 to mg per day, β-carotene has minimal side effects. Other antioxidants that may provide protection against CHD include selenium, bioflavonoids and ubiquinone. One study 33 found that selenium levels are inversely associated with CHD mortality.

One review 7 noted that conflicting results were reported in other studies. Flavonoids are antioxidants found in tea, wine, fruits and vegetables. These antioxidants reduce platelet activation, but studies do not yet support an associated reduction in CHD.

Ubiquinone, a reduced form of coenzyme Q 10 , decreases LDL oxidation, but no eventreduction data are available. The results of studies of garlic supplements have been conflicting regarding lipoprotein and platelet effects. The B-complex vitamins, especially folate, pyridoxine vitamin B 6 and cyanocobalamin vitamin B 12 , may reduce CHD risk through a lowering of homocysteine levels.

Folic acid supplementation in a dosage greater than μg per day reduces the plasma homocysteine level. Use of a daily multivitamin supplement containing folate μg would reduce plasma homocysteine levels in most persons.

Oxidized LDL is atherogenic, and specific antioxidants can inhibit LDL oxidation. Epidemiologic studies report inverse relationships between CHD and supplementation with vitamins E, C and β-carotene. Clinical trials to reduce CHD events currently support vitamin E supplementation in dosages greater than IU per day.

Vitamin C promotes vitamin E regeneration and significantly improves vasoreactivity, but clinical event reduction has not been established. The results of β-carotene studies have generally been unfavorable, primarily for smokers. Folate reduces serum homocysteine levels, but trials focusing on CHD events have not been completed.

Ubiquinone, flavonoids, garlic and other supplements have not been adequately tested for CHD event reduction, appropriate dosing, reliability or long-term safety.

Because of the benefits from dietary antioxidants and other micronutrients, physicians should recommend consumption of a diet containing five to seven servings of fruits and vegetables per day Table 4.

Based on current evidence, patients with CHD should probably take vitamin E in a dosage of IU per day; vitamin C supplementation in a dosage of to 1, mg per day should also be considered in these patients.

Patients receiving warfarin Coumadin therapy should limit vitamin E intake to IU per day and should avoid vitamin E if they are at high risk for bleeding.

Cohort studies suggest that patients with conditions in which LDL oxidation is common i. Supplementation of β-carotene is not recommended for CHD prevention because of the possible harm demonstrated in several studies. A high-quality diet or a daily multivitamin may be a useful way to obtain important B vitamins, especially folate μg per day , which lowers homocysteine levels.

Diaz MN, Frei B, Vita JA, Keaney JF. Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med. Schwartz CJ, Valente AJ, Sprague EA. A modern view of atherogenesis. Am J Cardiol.

Jialal I, Grundy SM. Influence of antioxidant vitamins on LDL oxidation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. O'Keefe JH, Conn RD, Lavie CJ, Bateman TH.

The new paradigm for coronary artery disease: altering risk factors, atherosclerotic plaques, and clinical prognosis. Mayo Clin Proc. Jha P, Flather M, Lonn E, Farkouh M, Yusuf S. The antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease. A critical review of epidemiologic and clinical trial data.

Ann Intern Med. Odeh RM, Cornish LA. Natural antioxidants for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Kwiterovich PO. The effect of dietary fat, antioxidants, and pro-oxidants on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis. J Am Diet Assoc. Heitzer T, Just H, Munzel T.

Antioxidant vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic smokers. Reilly M, Delanty N, Lawson JA, FitzGerald GA. Modulation of oxidant stress in vivo in chronic cigarette smokers. Ting HH, Timimi FK, Haley EA, Roddy MA, Ganz P, Creager MA. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in forearm resistance vessels of humans with hypercholesterolemia.

Plotnick GD, Corretti MC, Vogel RA. Effect of antioxidant vitamins on the transient impairment of endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasoactivity following a single high-fat meal.

Often used as a marketing buzzword, Citrus aurantium for respiratory health about the role Detoxification pills antioxidants bitamins the Abtioxidant, and some of the research on health and disease prevention. Jump to: — What are antioxidants? Another constant threat comes from chemicals called free radicals. In very high levels, they are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. The body generates free radicals as the inevitable byproducts of turning food into energy.

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BEST Antioxidant \u0026 Anti-Inflammatory Fruits and Vegetables

Antioxidant vitamins -

Investigators had hoped that the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial SELECT would give more definitive answers on vitamin E and prostate cancer. But investigators halted the study halfway through in when early analyses showed that vitamin E offered no cancer or prostate cancer prevention benefit.

Though these results may sound worrisome, two other major trials of vitamin E and prostate cancer had quite different results: The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene randomized trial, for example, followed nearly 30, Finnish male smokers for an average of six years.

Why were the SELECT findings on vitamin E and prostate cancer so different from those of earlier studies? Previous studies of vitamin E supplements and prostate cancer found the greatest benefit in men who were smokers and who had more advanced cancers.

There is also evidence that different processes may be at work in early versus late-stage prostate cancers. A large trial of a drug to prevent prostate cancer found opposite effects when used in early versus advanced prostate cancers. Bear in mind that most prostate cancer develops slowly, and any study looking at prostate cancer prevention needs to track men for a long time.

By stopping the SELECT trial early, there is no way to tell if vitamin E could have helped protect against prostate cancer in some men if they had continued the trial over a longer period of time. Very few cases in the SELECT trial were of advanced prostate cancer, further limiting the interpretation of the findings.

A six-year trial found that vitamin E, in combination with vitamin C, beta carotene, and zinc, offered some protection against the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration AMD , but not cataracts, in people who were at high risk of the disease.

Vitamin E is found in plant-based oils, nuts , seeds, fruits , and vegetables. Because vitamin E is found in a variety of foods and supplements, a deficiency in the U.

is rare. People who have digestive disorders or do not absorb fat properly e. The following are common signs of a deficiency:. There is no evidence of toxic effects from vitamin E found naturally in foods. Most adults who obtain more than the RDA of 22 IU daily are using multivitamins or separate vitamin E supplements that contain anywhere from IU daily.

There have not been reports of harmful side effects of supplement use in healthy people. However, there is a risk of excess bleeding, particularly with doses greater than mg daily or if an individual is also using a blood thinning medication such as warfarin.

For this reason, an upper limit for vitamin E has been set for adults 19 years and older of mg daily IU of any form of tocopherol supplement. Due to occasional reports of negative health effects of vitamin E supplements, scientists have debated whether these supplements could be harmful and even increase the risk of death.

Researchers have tried to answer this question by combining the results of multiple studies. In one such analysis, the authors gathered and re-analyzed data from 19 clinical trials of vitamin E, including the GISSI and HOPE studies [50]; they found a higher rate of death in trials where patients took more than IU of supplements a day.

While this meta-analysis drew headlines when it was released, there are limitations to the conclusions that can be drawn from it.

Some of the findings were based on very small studies. In some of these trials, vitamin E was combined with high doses of beta-carotene, which itself has been related to excess mortality. Other meta-analyses have come to different conclusions. So it is not clear that these findings would apply to healthy people.

The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products. Skip to content The Nutrition Source.

The Nutrition Source Menu. Search for:. Home Nutrition News What Should I Eat? Recommended Amounts The Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA for vitamin E for males and females ages 14 years and older is 15 mg daily or 22 international units, IU , including women who are pregnant.

Vitamin E and Health Heart disease For a time, vitamin E supplements looked like an easy way to prevent cardiovascular disease. A later analysis found that women who took the vitamin E supplements also had a lower risk of developing serious blood clots in the legs and lungs, with women at the highest risk of such blood clots receiving the greatest benefit.

In the GISSI Prevention Trial, the results were mixed but mostly showed no preventive effects after more than three years of treatment with vitamin E among 11, heart attack survivors.

Randomized controlled trials in people without heart disease at baseline. The SU. MAX randomized controlled trial found that seven years of low-dose vitamin E supplementation as part of a daily antioxidant pill reduced the risk of cancer and the risk of dying from any cause in men, but did not show these beneficial effects in women; the supplements did not offer any protection against heart disease in men or women.

Researchers found that taking vitamin E supplements of IU every other day, alone or with vitamin C, failed to offer any protection against heart attacks, strokes, or cardiovascular deaths.

Cancer Taken as a whole, observational studies have not found that vitamin E in food or supplements offers much protection against cancer in general, or against specific cancers. Age-related vision diseases A six-year trial found that vitamin E, in combination with vitamin C, beta carotene, and zinc, offered some protection against the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration AMD , but not cataracts, in people who were at high risk of the disease.

More research is needed. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS : One large prospective study that followed nearly 1 million people for up to 16 years found that people who regularly took vitamin E supplements had a lower risk of dying from ALS than people who never took vitamin E supplements.

References Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, D. S Preventive Services Task Force, Mangione CM, Barry MJ, Nicholson WK, Cabana M, Chelmow D, Coker TR, Davis EM, Donahue KE, Doubeni CA, Jaén CR, Kubik M, Li L, Ogedegbe G, Pbert L, Ruiz JM, Stevermer J, Wong JB.

Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplementation to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC.

Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl J Med. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.

Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. Antioxidants for vascular disease. Med Clin North Am. Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. Glynn RJ, Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Zee RY, Buring JE. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial.

Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, Bosch J, Sleight P. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Lonn E, Bosch J, Yusuf S, et al. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

Kris-Etherton PM, Lichtenstein AH, Howard BV, Steinberg D, Witztum JL. Antioxidant vitamin supplements and cardiovascular disease. Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

Arch Intern Med. Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, et al. Milman U, Blum S, Shapira C, et al. Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin genotype: a prospective double-blinded clinical trial.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer. Willett WC, Polk BF, Underwood BA, et al.

Relation of serum vitamins A and E and carotenoids to the risk of cancer. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL.

This article explains it all in human terms. Coffee is incredibly high in antioxidants. Several studies have shown that people get more antioxidants from coffee than any other food group.

Some experts have suggested that substances in milk can inactive antioxidants in foods and beverages. This article explores whether this is true or….

Vitamins and other nutrients from whole foods have many health benefits. The same may not apply to synthetic nutrients from supplements.

Want a cup of vitamin coffee? Instead of turning to coffee pods, learn how to make it yourself by adding one of these six healthy ingredients. Selenium is an essential mineral that's vital to your health. Here are 7 health benefits of selenium, all backed by science. MindBodyGreen provides third-party-tested supplements made with high quality ingredients.

Our testers and dietitians discuss whether MindBodyGreen…. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based Should You Take Antioxidant Supplements?

By Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD — Updated on November 13, What They Are Risks Vitamin C Food Sources Bottom Line Antioxidant supplements are popular and commonly considered healthy. Share on Pinterest. What Are Antioxidant Supplements?

Taking High Doses Can Be Harmful. Vitamin C May Benefit Some People. Get Your Antioxidants From Food. The Bottom Line.

How we reviewed this article: History. Nov 13, Written By Gavin Van De Walle. Share this article. Read this next. READ MORE. Antioxidants Explained in Simple Terms. Coffee and Antioxidants: Everything You Need to Know. By Adda Bjarnadottir, MS, RDN Ice.

Does Milk Block Antioxidants in Foods and Beverages? Synthetic vs Natural Nutrients: Does It Matter? By Mary Jane Brown, PhD, RD UK. Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, Ph. By Jillian Kubala, MS, RD. Malanga Health Benefits and More.

Mayo Clinic offers Mental clarity exercises Citrus aurantium for respiratory health Arizona, Florida and Minnesota and vitamind Mayo Clinic Health System locations. Vitamin C Antioxirant acid is a nutrient your body needs Antioxidant vitamins form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle vitajins collagen Antioxivant bones. Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation from the sun, X-rays or other sources. Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Vitamin C also helps your body absorb and store iron. Antioxidant vitamins Mayo Clinic Liver detoxification strategies appointments Detoxification pills Arizona, Vittamins and Minnesota Citrus aurantium for respiratory health at Mayo Clinic Health System locations. Antioxidants are substances that may Antioidant your cells against free radicals, which may Antioxidanf a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or when you're exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation. Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Other naturally occurring antioxidants include flavonoids, tannins, phenols and lignans.

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