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Hydration and sports-related cramps

Hydration and sports-related cramps

Learn More. Carmps need to do your research and be an informed consumer. In the research world there are essentially two competing theories of what causes Exercise Associated Muscle Cramp

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition volume 18Article number: spkrts-related Cite this article. Metrics details. Muscle cramp is Athletes and low iron levels painful, involuntary muscle contraction, and that occurs sportz-related or Electrolyte System exercise is referred to as exercise-associated sports-rleated cramp EAMC.

The causes of EAMC cfamps likely to be multifactorial, Non-pharmaceutical ulcer management dehydration and electrolytes deficits are considered to be factors.

This study tested Hdyration hypothesis that post-exercise muscle cramp Acai berry skincare would be increased with spring water ingestion, but reduced with oral rehydration solution Rest and recovery meals ingestion during sports-re,ated.

The participants ingested either sports-relates water or ORS for Hydratin body mass loss in each period. The two conditions Hydratiln counter-balanced among sporrs-related participants Iron-rich vegetarian foods separated by a week.

Changes in these varaibles over time were compared sports-relafed conditions by two-way Hydraion measures of analysis of variance. The average ±SD baseline TF TF decreased 3.

These results suggest that ORS intake during sports-relatd decreased muscle cramp susceptibility. It Hydratoon concluded that ingesting Hydragion appeared to be effective for preventing EAMC.

Water is essential sports-relatdd our body, thus it is necessary to Hydratkon by drinking sporys-related and Hydragion foods that contain water every day. Exercising sports-rwlated the heat increases body Natural slimming tips core temperature, and reduces non-pharmacological approaches to wakefulness content in Chia seed cookies body, Hydratioj fluid sports-rflated is crucial for maintaining performance and preventing dehydration cranps could cause sportw-related events [ Traditional medicine knowledge2 ].

However, drinking anr much plain water during exercise sports-elated negatively affect exercise performance [ 3 sports-gelated, 4 ]. Crampx and Stuempfle [ 6 ] demonstrated that overhydration was the zports-related characteristic of symptomatic hyponatremia during sports-relatedd km running sportts-related.

One of the symptoms of hyponatremia is muscle psorts-related, which is a painful, involuntary muscle contraction [ Hydration and sports-related cramps8 ]. It is possible that drinking High-intensity resistance training large L-carnitine and energy production of plain ctamps dilutes sports-eelated and other electrolytes in the blood and extracellular fluid, increasing EAMC susceptibility [ 12 — 14 ].

Schwellnus et al. Sports-relatfd mechanisms underpinning Hydfation are unknown, but are crwmps to be multifactorial [ 10111517 ]. Giuriato Fat-burning exercises without equipment al.

On Obesity and sedentary lifestyle other hand, Maughan and Shirreffs [ 7 xports-related have stated in their recent review paper sports-relqted high sports-relatee temperature and ad sweat losses accompanied by the ingestion of large volumes sports-rrlated plain water may Hydration and sports-related cramps risk factors for EAMC.

Therefore, it is interesting anc examine the effects of plain water versus water containing electrolytes Hydratiion EAMC yHdration clarify whether any differences exist between the conditions.

To quantify muscle cramp susceptibility, previous studies Hydratipn 1419 — 23 ] Hydration and sports-related cramps electrical stimulation Hydrstion induce muscle cramp, and showed that muscle cramp was induced by increasing the electrical stilumation frequency, crxmps that threshold sprts-related which induced muscle sportw-related could be used as an indicator of muscle cramp susceptibility.

Cdamps example, Lau et al. However, Hydratin Hydration and sports-related cramps rehydration Hydration and sports-related cramps Pre-competition fueling please refer to the contents sportss-related OS-1 shown sportw-related was Hdyration after exercise, TF increased, indicating decreased muscle cramp susceptibility.

These Hydrration suggested anf plain water intake after dehydration made muscles more Hydraation to muscle cramp, camps Hydration and sports-related cramps ORS was consumed, sport-related cramp susceptibility was reduced [ sorts-related ].

However, it is not known how plain water or ORS ingestion during exercise in crxmps heat affects muscle cramp susceptibility.

This study was approved by Hydration and sports-related cramps Institutional Human Research Hydratlon Committee, and complied Hudration the Declaration of Helsinki. Ten young men were recruited for the sports-relatdd study, and each of them Hgdration an informed consent cranps and completed medical questionnaires before Beta-alanine and muscle buffering capacity in the study.

The effect size for the difference in TF changes Healthy weight management articles conditions was estimated to be 0. However, participants responded to Reducing cellulite at home electrical train stimulation described below and had muscle cramping in the screening.

If participants did not tolerate to the electrical stimulation, or craps muscle Hydtation was induced by the electrical stimulation, they were excluded from the study.

Thus, all participants included in the present study were muscle cramp responders to the electrical stimulation. The present study used OS-1 Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc. The fluid ingested during and after DHR was the same for each condition. Using a cross-over design, the OS-1 and spring water conditions were sports-elated for changes in TF of electrical stimulation to induce calf muscle cramp before and after DHR.

The two conditions were counterbalanced among the participants and separated by a week. DHR was used in the present study, since its metabolic demand is smaller than that in level or uphill running [ 24 ].

To assess calf muscle cramp susceptibility, calf muscles were electrically stimulated to induce muscle cramping, and the frequency of the stimulation to induce muscle cramp was used as an indicator of muscle cramp susceptibility [ 14 ].

Each participant lay prone on a massage bed, and the instep was placed on the bed, which kept the sporst-related joint in a plantar-flexed position. Electrical train stimulation was delivered to the calf muscles of the kicking dominant leg by a portable electrical stimulator Compex 2, Compex Medical, Switzerland with one electrode cathode placed over the tibialis posterior nerve in the popliteal fossa, and the other electrode anode placed at the tibialis tendon.

The locations of the electrodes were marked by a semi-permanent marker to sprots-related the consistent electrode placement between measures on the same day and between sessions separated by a week. Each stimulation consisted of 0. This method was developed for the present study, based on our previous study [ 14 ].

The muscle cramp was identified by sport-srelated visibly taut muscle sustained after stimulation, and pain reported by the participant.

Participants were instructed to relax during the electrical stimulation, and as soon as muscle cramp was confirmed, the cramp was relieved by passive dorsiflexion of the foot by the investigator.

All participants were instructed to refrain from any strenuous exercise for one week prior to participating in the study. All participants were required to record their food intake before the first session, and they were asked to have the same foods and amount of water before the second session.

However, the actual food and fluid intakes were not checked nor recorded, thus it was not not known whether the meal content and fluid intake before the two sessionas were identical. The running velocity was between 6. After the body mass measurement, each participant ingested either spring water or OS-1 for sports-relatfd amount of the body mass decrease in the time period Fig.

In the second bout, the protocol was the same as that of the first bout, thus the participants ran the same duration for the same distance at the same velocities for the anf bouts. Study design and the time course of measurements taken Hydratino the study. Before downhill running DHRblood sample was taken to assess haematocrit Hcthaemoglobin and serum osmolality, and to measure serum sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride Hydrwtion, and threshold frequency TF of electrical train stimulation to induce muscle cramp was measured as an indicator of muscle cramp susceptibility.

Immediately after DHR, blood sample was taken for the analyses shown above, and TF was measured again. During DHR, heart rate HR Model Si; Polar Electro Oy, Finland and rating of perceived exertion RPE, 6—20 point Borg Scale were recorded Fig.

Ratings of perceived thermal sensation was assessed with an 8-point thermal rating scale 0: unbearably cold to 8: unbearably hot [ 25 ]. A portion of the blood sample 1.

The electrolyte concentrations were measured by an ABBOTT Architect C analyser Abbott Park, IL, USA using a corresponding kit for sodium, chlorine and potassium and using another kit for magnesium Abbott Laboratories Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA.

Data were assessed by a Shapiro-Wilk test for the normality and a Levene test for the homogeneity of variance assumption. The distance covered in the DHR was 5. The variability among the participants was due to the velocity used in the DHR depending on the fitness level of the participants.

The average HR, RPE and thermal sensation during DHR were The tympanic temperature increased from No particpants experirnced muscle soreness after Aand. The total amount of fluid intake during DHR was The total amount of fluid intake during and after exercise was not significantly different between conditions No significant differences crampss conditions were found for the baseline values of Hct, Hb and serum osmolality Table 1.

Hct and Hb did not change significantly immediately after DHR for both conditions, but serum osmolarity decreased immediately post-DHR for the spring water condition only. Crampz changes in plasma volume were calculated using the equation by [ 28 ].

Plasma volume increased 6. No muscle cramp occured during DHR in both conditions. TF at baseline sports-rrlated not significantly different between the spring anr Figure 2 shows absolute changes in TF following DHR from the baseline.

TF decreased by 3. In contrast, TF increased by 6. As shown in Table 1ccramps significant differences in serum electrolyte concentrations were evident between conditions at the baseline. No significant differences were found between conditions for the changes in all electrolytes except chloride, but significant decreases in serum sodium and chloride concentrations were observed only for the spring water condition at immediately post-exercise.

The results of the present study Hgdration that the TF to induce muscle cramp after DHR increased with the ingestion of OS-1 during DHR, but decreased with spring water ingestion during DHR. This supported the hypothesis that post-exercise muscle cramp susceptibility would be decreased by ingestinon of ORS but increased by spring water during exercise.

In comparison to the previous study [ 14 ], in which no fluid intake sports-rekated allowed during DHR, the increases in HR It appears that the fluid intake during DHR reduced the increase in core temperature, which lowered HR and RPE.

Ssports-related shown in Table 1no significant changes in Hct and Hb from baseline crampx immediately after DHR were observed for both conditions. Furthermore, plasma volume was greater for the OS-1 than spring water condition from the baseline to immediately post-exercise, suggesting that water absorption was greater for the OS-1 condition.

Serum HHydration and sodium concentration slightly decreased for the crampz water condition, suggesting that sodium concentration in the sports-relatsd was more sports-relatdd after the spring water than OS-1 ingestion. This may be due to the Hydragion shorter duration and lower-intensity of the exercise.

It does not appear that a decrease in serum sodium concentration per se is a cause of muscle cramp. However, it is possible that sodium or other electrylyte concentrations splrts-related inside and outside of muscle fibers are changed without changes in their serum concentrations.

It is interesting to use a microdialysis or other technique to investigate changes in intracellular and Hydrstion electrolytes after spring water versus OS-1 or other ORS.

It should be noted that TF measures do not sports-telated cramping intensity and duration, nor the extent of pain associated with the muscle cramp. However, TF has been used to assess muscle cramp susceptibility in the previous studies for the abductor halluces muscle [ 222329 ] or the plantar flexors [ 1419 ].

Minetto et al. Behringer Hydrafion al. In the present study, the baseline TF was consistent Although the present study was not able to assess muscle cramp susceptibility during DHR exercise, the decrease in TF at immediately post-DHR is likely to indicate increased muscle cramp susceptibility during exercise.

This finding was in line with the study by Miller et al. In regards to the relationship between dehydration serum sodium concentration and muscle cramp, Schwellnus et al. Sulzer et annd.

: Hydration and sports-related cramps

Electrolytes and Hydration - How to avoid muscle cramp Meet Our Review Board. Credits Current as of: November 9, Read blog post titled Starting Orangetheory Fitness? Take the Quiz! I wanted to make Team USA. Second, follow the rules and be a gracious winner and respectful loser. It's also congruent with lots of other anecdotal evidence coming from athletes who train or compete in similar conditions of heavy sweat loss, but more on that later.
Muscle Cramping

Before downhill running DHR , blood sample was taken to assess haematocrit Hct , haemoglobin and serum osmolality, and to measure serum sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride concentrations, and threshold frequency TF of electrical train stimulation to induce muscle cramp was measured as an indicator of muscle cramp susceptibility.

Immediately after DHR, blood sample was taken for the analyses shown above, and TF was measured again. During DHR, heart rate HR Model Si; Polar Electro Oy, Finland and rating of perceived exertion RPE, 6—20 point Borg Scale were recorded Fig.

Ratings of perceived thermal sensation was assessed with an 8-point thermal rating scale 0: unbearably cold to 8: unbearably hot [ 25 ]. A portion of the blood sample 1. The electrolyte concentrations were measured by an ABBOTT Architect C analyser Abbott Park, IL, USA using a corresponding kit for sodium, chlorine and potassium and using another kit for magnesium Abbott Laboratories Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA.

Data were assessed by a Shapiro-Wilk test for the normality and a Levene test for the homogeneity of variance assumption.

The distance covered in the DHR was 5. The variability among the participants was due to the velocity used in the DHR depending on the fitness level of the participants. The average HR, RPE and thermal sensation during DHR were The tympanic temperature increased from No particpants experirnced muscle soreness after DHR.

The total amount of fluid intake during DHR was The total amount of fluid intake during and after exercise was not significantly different between conditions No significant differences between conditions were found for the baseline values of Hct, Hb and serum osmolality Table 1.

Hct and Hb did not change significantly immediately after DHR for both conditions, but serum osmolarity decreased immediately post-DHR for the spring water condition only. Percent changes in plasma volume were calculated using the equation by [ 28 ].

Plasma volume increased 6. No muscle cramp occured during DHR in both conditions. TF at baseline was not significantly different between the spring water Figure 2 shows absolute changes in TF following DHR from the baseline. TF decreased by 3. In contrast, TF increased by 6.

As shown in Table 1 , no significant differences in serum electrolyte concentrations were evident between conditions at the baseline. No significant differences were found between conditions for the changes in all electrolytes except chloride, but significant decreases in serum sodium and chloride concentrations were observed only for the spring water condition at immediately post-exercise.

The results of the present study showed that the TF to induce muscle cramp after DHR increased with the ingestion of OS-1 during DHR, but decreased with spring water ingestion during DHR. This supported the hypothesis that post-exercise muscle cramp susceptibility would be decreased by ingestinon of ORS but increased by spring water during exercise.

In comparison to the previous study [ 14 ], in which no fluid intake was allowed during DHR, the increases in HR It appears that the fluid intake during DHR reduced the increase in core temperature, which lowered HR and RPE.

As shown in Table 1 , no significant changes in Hct and Hb from baseline to immediately after DHR were observed for both conditions. Furthermore, plasma volume was greater for the OS-1 than spring water condition from the baseline to immediately post-exercise, suggesting that water absorption was greater for the OS-1 condition.

Serum osmolality and sodium concentration slightly decreased for the spring water condition, suggesting that sodium concentration in the blood was more diluted after the spring water than OS-1 ingestion. This may be due to the relatively shorter duration and lower-intensity of the exercise. It does not appear that a decrease in serum sodium concentration per se is a cause of muscle cramp.

However, it is possible that sodium or other electrylyte concentrations of inside and outside of muscle fibers are changed without changes in their serum concentrations. It is interesting to use a microdialysis or other technique to investigate changes in intracellular and extracellular electrolytes after spring water versus OS-1 or other ORS.

It should be noted that TF measures do not provide cramping intensity and duration, nor the extent of pain associated with the muscle cramp.

However, TF has been used to assess muscle cramp susceptibility in the previous studies for the abductor halluces muscle [ 22 , 23 , 29 ] or the plantar flexors [ 14 , 19 ]. Minetto et al. Behringer et al. In the present study, the baseline TF was consistent Although the present study was not able to assess muscle cramp susceptibility during DHR exercise, the decrease in TF at immediately post-DHR is likely to indicate increased muscle cramp susceptibility during exercise.

This finding was in line with the study by Miller et al. In regards to the relationship between dehydration serum sodium concentration and muscle cramp, Schwellnus et al.

Sulzer et al. In contrast, Hoffman and Stuempfle [ 6 ] showed no difference in serum sodium concentration at the finish of a km ultramarathon among those with muscle cramping, near cramping and no cramping in the last stage of the race. Using TF to assess muscle cramp, Miller et al.

Braulick et al. Additionally, no significant correlations were evident between the magnitude of change in TF and the magnitude of changes in serum sodium or chloride concentration.

These suggest that muscle cramp susceptibility is not determined by serum sodium and chloride concentrations alone. One of the limitations of the present study was that a control condition of no fluid ingestion during exercise was included to compare with other conditions.

However, our previous study [ 14 ] showed that TF did not change significantly at immediately after DHR from the baseline without fluid intake during exercise. Thus, it seems likely that no significant change in TF would have been observed, if no fluid ingestion during exercise condition had been included.

However, the slope of the DHR was not steep, and none of the participants experienced any delayed onset muscle soreness after the first bout.

Moreover, the order of the two conditions was counterbalanced among the participants, and it appeared that all participants recovered fully from the previous bout in 1 week. Thus, it seems likely that the results reflected the fluid conditions rather than the order of the conditions.

In the previous study [ 14 ], TF increased after OS-1 intake by 3. In the present study, TF increased by 6.

It is possible that the increases in TF after OS-1 ingestion suggest a decrease in muscle cramp susceptibility. Thus, it might be that the increase in TF was more due to glucose than electrolytes. Unfortunately, glucose concentration in the blood was not measured in the present study.

It is necessary to add the same amount of glucose to spring water to examine the effects of glucose on muscle cramp in a future study. It is possible that sodium in OS-1 stimulated TRP receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. It would be interesting to investigate how spring water or OS-1 intake affects oropharyngeal reflex, muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs and alpha motor neurons, and how a small change in electrolyte concentrations in the extracellular fluid surrounding muscle fibres could affect muscle cramp susceptibility.

It is also necessary to include female participants, athletes, and other age groups to confirm the present study findings. The goal of fluid intake during exercise is to prevent excessive dehydration and changes in electrolyte balance [ 32 ].

Evans et al. Thus, to prevent EAMC, ingesting OS-1 appears to be effective, but further research is warranted to investigate how OS-1 works to reduce the muscle cramp susceptibility. In the present study, no muscle cramp assessment was performed during exercise, and no voluntary muscle cramp was observed.

It would be interesting to observe whether muscle cramp does not occur during exercise, when OS-1 or other ORS is ingested during exercise.

It was concluded that spring water intake during exercise in the heat increased muscle cramp susceptibility after exercise downhill running , and ingestion of OS-1 decreased the muscle cramp susceptibility. These were in line with the findings of our previous study [ 14 ] showing that spring water intake after dehydration made muscles more susceptible to muscle cramp, but when OS-1 was consumed, the muscle cramp susceptibility was reduced.

It should be further investigated as to what and how much electrolytes should be contained in the beverage, and whether commercially available sport drinks that contain some electrolytes are as effective as OS-1 in reducing muscle cramp susceptiblilty.

Belval LN, Hosokawa Y, Casa DJ, Adams WM, Armstrong LE, Baker LB, Burke L, Cheuvront S, Chiampas G, González-Alonso J, Huggins RA, Kavouras SA, Lee EC, McDermott BP, Miller K, Schlader Z, Sims S, Stearns RL, Troyanos C, Wingo J.

Practical hydration solutions for sports. Article Google Scholar. Cheuvront SN, Carter R, Sawka MN. Fluid balance and endurance exercise performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. Costa RJS, Teixeira A, Rama L, Swancott AJM, Hardy LD, Lee B, Camões-Costa V, Gill S, Waterman JP, Freeth EC, Barrett E, Hankey J, Marczak S, Valero-Burgos E, Scheer V, Murray A, Thake CD.

Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study.

Nutr J. Noakes TD. Fluid replacement during marathon running. Clin J Sport Med. Rosner MH, Kirven J. Exercise-associated hyponatremia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. Hoffman MD, Stuempfle KJ.

Muscle cramping during a km ultramarathon: comparison of characteristics of those with and without cramping. Sports Med Open. Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM. Muscle cramping during exercise: causes, solutions, and questions remaining. Sports Med.

Swash M, Czesnik D, de Carvalho M. Muscular cramp: causes and management. Eur J Neurol. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Schwellnus MP. Cause of exercise associated muscle cramps EAMC - altered neurumuscular control, dehydration or electrolyte depletion? Br J Sports Med. Minetto MA, Holobar A, Botter A, Ravenni R, Farina D. Mechanisms of cramp contractions: peripheral or central generation?

J Physiol. Nelson NL, Churilla JR. A narrative review of exercise-associated muscle cramps: factors that contribute to neuromuscular fatigue and management implications. Muscle Nerve. Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. The exertional heat illness: a risk of athletic participation.

Med Exerc Nutr Health. Google Scholar. Schwellnus MP, Derman EW, Noakes TD. Aetiology of skeletal muscle "cramp" during exercise: a novel hypothesis. J Sports Sci. Lau WY, Kato H, Nosaka K. Water intake after dehydration makes muscles more susceptible to cramp but electrolytes reverse that effect.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Schwellnus MP, Drew N, Collins M. Muscle cramping in athletes--risk factors, clinical assessment, and management. Clin Sports Med. Schwellnus MP, Allie S, Derman W, Collins M. Increased running speed and pre-race muscle damage as risk factors for exercise-associated muscle cramps in a 56 km ultra-marathon: a prospective cohort study.

Increased running speed and previous cramps rather than dehydration or serum sodium changes predict exercise-associated muscle cramping: a prospective cohort study in ironman triathletes. Giuriato G, Pedrinolla A, Schena F, Venturelli M. Muscle cramps: a comparison of the two-leading hypothesis.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol. Behringer M, Harmsen JF, Fasse A, Mester J. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the frequency of skeletal muscle cramps: a prospective controlled clinical trial. Braulick KW, Miller KC, Albrecht JM, Tucker JM, Deal JE. Significant and serious dehydration does not affect skeletal muscle cramp threshold frequency.

Miller KC, Mack GW, Knight KL, Hopkins JTY, Draper DO, Fields PJ, Hunter I. Three percent hypohydration does not affect threshold frequency of electrically induced cramps. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Minetto MA, Botter A, Ravenni R, Merletti R, De Grandis D. Reliability of a novel neurostimulatory method to study involuntary muscle phenomena.

Panza G, Stadler J, Murray D, Lerma N, Barrett T, Pettit-Mee R, Edwards JE. Acute passive static stretching and cramp threshold frequency. J Athl Train. Vernillo G, Giandolini M, Edwards WB, Morin JB, Samozino P, Horvais N, Millet GY.

Biomechanics and physiology of uphill and downhill running. Young AJ, Sawka MN, Epstein Y, Decristofano B, Pandolf KB. Cooling different body surfaces during upper and lower body exercise.

J Appl Physiol. Matomäki P, Kainulainen H, Kyröläinen H. Corrected whole blood biomarkers — the equation of dill and costill revisited. Physiol Rep. Dill DB, Costill DL. Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. Miller KC, Long BC, Edwards JE.

Muscle cramp susceptibility increases following a voluntary induced muscle cramp. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine H.

Michael O'Connor MD - Emergency Medicine. Author: Healthwise Staff. Medical Review: William H. This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information.

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Important Phone Numbers. Topic Contents Overview Related Information Credits. Top of the page. Overview Most people lose as much as 1 L 1 qt to 2 L 2 qt of fluid during 1 hour of exercise.

Take water with you when you exercise. Avoid alcoholic drinks, which increase dehydration and make it hard to make good decisions. Do not take salt tablets. Most people get plenty of salt in their diets.

Preventing Muscle Cramps in Kids and Teens | Children's Healthcare of Atlanta

Stick with the peppermint flavor as those are the ones that do not contain any artificial colors. These tablets are rich in calcium carbonate which helps with muscle function and helps buffer your muscles.

I also recently found out that Team USA swimmers during the Rio Olympics chew on Tums prior to competition to help prevent muscle cramps.

Hydrate, hydrate, hydrate — it never hurts to hydrate. Clear means your body isn't absorbing the water - aim for pale yellow. More Stories You Might Like Read blog post titled Decoding Hydration Packs: Unveiling the Ingredients and Key Considerations Discover the key ingredients to consider when choosing an electrolyte product.

From sodium and potassium for Read blog post titled Revitalizing Mornings: Building Your Hydration Ritual with Nuun From maintaining a consistent wake-up schedule to hydrating with water and fueling your body before a Read blog post titled Starting Orangetheory Fitness?

Orange Theory Fitness. Sport Powder. Explore All Stories. Share Share on Facebook Tweet Tweet on Twitter Pin it Pin on Pinterest Email Share via Email. Thanks for subscribing! Muuv With Us. Yes, I want to receive exclusive email offers and health and wellness news from Nuun.

A hypotonic drink has a lower concentration of salt and sugar than blood. This drives fluid uptake by the body, meaning water is transported out of the stomach and intestines and into the body more quickly.

VOOM® Hydrate is hypotonic. An isotonic drink has the same concentration of salt and sugar as blood. The fluid is absorbed into the blood stream, not as quickly as a hypotonic solution, but quicker than a hypertonic solution.

A hypertonic drink has a higher concentration of salt and sugar than blood, which causes movement of water out of cells. This can cause water to flood into the stomach which often results in bloating and gastric upset.

Rapid and effective hydration depends on the active co—transport of glucose and sodium molecules through the small intestine.

The amount of glucose in a rehydration formula is very important. Conversely research has shown that increasing the amount of carbohydrate leads to a decrease in fluid delivery — the increase in osmolality causes a net movement of water into the intestine, causing a loss in the body water pool.

This may actually increase the effects of dehydration Maughan and Leiper. VOOM® Hydrate uses a tri-carb blend with full spectrum electrolytes to maximise fluid and energy delivery to working muscles by making use of glucose-sodium co-transport. Without enough practice, the risk of cramp is significantly increased.

An exception would be when runners walk, sip water and take on mineral solutions continuously. As a result, the legs will not be as overworked as they would be when running for the whole duration of a race.

Nevertheless, if a cramp does occur, the fastest and most effective way to relieve it is to stretch the affected muscle. Stretching the muscle will stimulate those muscles into preventing contractions, meaning that the cramp will go away.

That being said, if a medical team is close by, they can help to correctly massage the affected muscles with ice or a cooling spray, which is a highly effective form of treatment. The following techniques are a summary of the ways how we can prevent cramps while competing in running races:.

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Cookie Policy. Continue Change cookies settings. Home Health Articles What Are the True Causes of Cramps While Running? Back to Home. What Are the True Causes of Cramps While Running? Phattarapon Atimetin, M.

on May 15, Bones and Joints Sports Medicine Running Sports Injury Rehabilitation Exercise Cramp. Cramps do not result from a body that lacks minerals or hydration. They occur because of over-contraction or overuse of muscles, or lack of muscle strength.

Runners who experience cramp while competing tend to have over-trained in the three days prior to the event. Contrarily, the correct way to prepare is to reduce training load and get plenty of rest before the competition day. When a cramp does occur, the fastest and most effective way you can relieve it is to stretch the affected muscle.

This is because stretching will stimulate the muscle into preventing contractions, meaning the cramp will go away.

Muscle cramps in a growing athlete Hydration and sports-related cramps Hydrating facial mists the result annd dehydration and improper stretching or Hyrdation. Muscle cramps can occur anywhere on the Hydration and sports-related cramps but sports-rleated target the sports-relared extremities like aports-related or feet. If your child or teen does get a muscle cramp, stretching and massaging the area can help alleviate pain. Most cramps subside within a few seconds, if not a minute. If a muscle cramp gets too painful, the athlete can take an over-the-counter medication, such as Tylenol or ibuprofen. Our team is specially trained to care for teen athletes with sports-related injuries and illnesses. Hydration and sports-related cramps

Hydration and sports-related cramps -

Vegard M. Iversen, Martin Norum, … Marius S. Exercise-associated muscle cramp EAMC is a temporary but intense and painful involuntary contraction of skeletal muscle occurring during or soon after a period of physical activity.

EAMC is highly unpredictable and it seems likely that different mechanisms may operate in different scenarios. Proposed mechanisms include disturbances of water and electrolyte balance, and abnormal spinal reflex activity.

Few athletes escape the painful experience of muscle cramps at some stage during their sporting career. Titles and abstracts of the results returned were screened for relevance. The same search on PubMed returned items. However, although the timespan for the Web of Science was set to —, this search revealed no publications prior to No date was specified for the PubMed search, but the earliest relevant publication returned by the search appeared in These searches thus excluded all of the older literature, and this perhaps explains why most publications continue to ignore this.

Earlier publications were identified from various sources. Several surveys have attempted to identify the prevalence of EAMC in different sports populations, but comparing results across studies is hampered by different definitions and different measurement periods, and also by the use of different assessment tools.

Although seemingly suggesting that cramp is common, these data are a mixture of incidence rates in single events and lifetime incidence. Most often, cramping is a relatively minor inconvenience: Schwabe et al.

reported the incidence of serious muscle cramping to be less than one per thousand runners in a large cohort 65, runners of participants in half-marathon and ultra-marathon events [ 8 ]. To put these data in perspective, Abdulla et al. The statistics on EAMC from athlete populations do not reveal the fact that for some of those afflicted, it may be a rare occurrence—perhaps only one or two incidents over the course of a whole career, and therefore mostly of negligible impact—while others may be affected much more frequently and much more severely.

In severe cases, the muscle pain may persist for hours or even days after the acute contraction has resolved, and may result in an inability to train or compete. There are many different potential causes of muscle cramps, most of which are not associated with exercise but with a range of clinical conditions or the use of drugs for the treatment of those conditions [ 12 , 13 , 14 ].

Even within the narrow area of EAMC, the highly localised cramp in the calf that afflicts the football soccer player late in the game is very different from the whole-body cramps that some American football players and tennis players describe and that have been reported in some industrial settings.

These in turn are different from the cramp that afflicts small muscles used in repetitive exercise, such as the hand in writers or typists [ 15 ].

Cramps typically occur spontaneously and may or may not occur predictably. Some cramps are associated with fasciculations or other prodromal symptoms, but there may be no warning in other cases [ 12 ].

Cramp in some small muscles can be induced in the laboratory, but not all cramps can be induced reliably and not all individuals are susceptible, making them difficult to study.

Likewise, some cramps occur early on during exercise, while some occur only after prolonged periods of exercise; others still occur some minutes or even many hours after exercise.

It is not clear that the mechanisms underpinning these different types of cramp are the same. This uncertainty is reflected in the conclusion of several recent reviews that the causes of EAMC, and therefore the treatment options, remain uncertain [ 16 , 17 ].

Two main hypotheses have been proposed and continue to be debated: a disturbance of water and salt balance, and a neurological cause resulting in sustained abnormal discharge of motor drive to the afflicted muscles [ 18 ].

Each of these has some support, but neither can fully explain the nature of EAMC. Although EAMC has been observed in both training and competition in almost every type of sport, it does seem from the surveys cited above to be more associated with endurance-type activities and in team sports.

Most cases occurred in the later stages of the race, after an average of 35 km had been completed: no cases were reported to have occurred before 24 km, and 5 of the 15 instances occurred during the last 1.

Schwellnus and colleagues have made a number of attempts to characterise the primary risk factors predisposing to cramp in endurance events.

Schwellnus et al. reported that, in a prospective cohort study in Ironman triathletes, independent risk factors for EAMC were a history of the condition and competing at a higher than usual exercise intensity, but that dehydration and serum sodium changes did not predict EAMC [ 21 ].

Manjra et al. Other risk factors included older age, a longer history of running, higher body mass index BMI , shorter daily stretching time, irregular stretching habits, and a positive family history of cramping.

In a more recent analysis of cross-sectional data from almost 16, participants in two races over a distance of Factors associated with a history of EAMC included underlying chronic disease including cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous system, kidney, bladder and haematological disease , as well as cancer, allergies, regular medication use, and a history of injury.

More experienced runners were also at greater risk. Whether some underlying common factors underpin these associations is not at present clear. In what seems to be the largest survey to date, but published only as an abstract, Swanevelder et al.

analysed data from an online pre-race medical screening questionnaire completed by 41, distance runners who completed either a The investigators considered independent risk factors associated with EAMC model 1: binary outcome , and risk factors associated with severe EAMC model 2: defined as recurrent cramping history , and found some rather inconsistent outcomes.

In model 2, a lower BMI and running in There seem to be some mutually contradictory statements here. Two main causes for muscle cramps have been proposed and, depending on which an individual subscribes to, the choice of prevention and treatment strategies will be determined.

It should be recognised though that the picture is not at all clear, and the evidence on both sides of the debate is weak. It is unlikely that a single mechanism can account for all cramps in all situations, therefore the search for a single causal mechanism is probably futile.

It follows from this that strategies for the prevention and treatment of the condition are also unlikely to be one-dimensional.

However, whatever the primary cause, it is clear that cramp is accompanied by active contraction of the afflicted muscle, as evidenced by high levels of muscle electrical activity [ 26 ]. There may however be more evidence than these authors admit. These studies were inevitably limited by the methods available at the time, but they did have the advantage of access to large populations and the keeping of careful medical records related to productivity.

It is easy to dismiss much of the older literature, but some of the observations were extensive and meticulous. They should also be read in the context of the normal publishing conventions of the time.

Although methodologies were limited, some of the observations were acute and sometimes remarkably prescient. For example, Moss published an extensive report in which he documented cases of cramp among coal miners and the factors that may have contributed to the development of these cramps [ 28 ].

He attributed the onset of cramps, which in some cases were seriously debilitating, to 1 high air temperatures; 2 excessive drinking of water caused by dryness of the mouth and throat; and 3 continued hard work. He also observed that cramps tended to occur during the second half of a working shift and in men who were less physically fit, thus implicating not only sweat losses but also fatigue in the aetiology.

Chloride was normally measured in body fluids as there was no good assay for sodium at the time, but there is a close relationship between sodium and chloride concentration in sweat [ 34 ].

This does not implicate dehydration, as most of the later writers say e. Bergeron [ 24 ] , but rather inappropriate, and perhaps excessive, intake of plain water in combination with large losses of electrolytes in sweat. This is not a true reflection of the theories proposed during the s and s.

It is also not correct to say that there have been no large-scale prospective studies to assess the role of water and salt balance in the aetiology of muscle cramps.

Dill et al. reported the findings of intervention studies carried out at the site of construction of the Hoover Dam and in the steel mills of Youngstown, Ohio [ 32 ]. At both of these locations, large numbers of men undertook hard physical work in extremely hot environments on a daily basis.

They found that those suffering from cramp displayed the following characteristics: 1 dehydration; 2 lowered concentration of sodium and chloride in blood plasma; 3 little or no sodium or chloride in urine; 4 increased serum protein concentration; 5 increased red cell count; and 6 normal osmotic pressure.

This presents a complex picture: some of these findings are typical of dehydration 1, 4 and 5 , while others are consistent with overhydration 2, 3.

However, they also reported that injection of isotonic saline normalised the blood profile and brought immediate relief from the symptoms. In the largest intervention study, reported in the same paper, they added saline to the water given to the 12, men employed in one of the mills, while those at neighbouring mills continued to be provided with plain water; this was effective in almost completely abolishing cases of muscle cramp, although in previous years, and at other mills in the same year where plain water was given, up to 12 cases of cramp required hospitalisation in a single day.

In a controlled environment, severe restriction of dietary sodium intake can result in hyponatraemia and may be associated with generalised skeletal muscle cramping in the absence of exercise [ 35 ]. Some more recent studies have assessed changes in hydration status and plasma electrolyte concentrations in athletes who have experienced muscle cramps; these studies have included marathon runners [ 3 ], participants in a 56 km road race [ 36 ], competitors in an Ironman triathlon [ 37 ], and participants in a km ultramarathon [ 38 ].

None of these showed any association between cramp and serum electrolyte changes, but it is important to note that serum electrolyte concentrations may be of little relevance.

Local intracellular and extracellular electrolyte concentrations may be relevant as they will affect the resting membrane potential of both muscle and nerve, but it is unlikely that changes in plasma concentrations can track these changes; there is good evidence that changes in the plasma concentration of these electrolytes do not reflect local intramuscular changes during either intense or prolonged exercise [ 39 , 40 ].

It is also the case that blood samples have usually not been collected at the time of cramping, but only later, usually once the cramping has resolved; in some cases, this was several hours after resolution of the cramps, therefore the absence of any association is perhaps not surprising.

acknowledged that disturbances in electrolyte concentrations can lead to alterations in neuromuscular excitability, and this may have a role in the generalised skeletal muscle cramping reported in some industrial contexts, but argue that most EAMC affects only the muscles involved in the exercise task, suggesting that systemic disturbances must interact with local changes occurring within the active muscles [ 1 ].

There is some experimental evidence that individual athletes who lose large amounts of salt in their sweat may be more prone to muscle cramps. Unlike the earlier large-scale industrial records, this evidence does derive primarily from small studies, case reports and anecdotal reports, and is therefore inevitably rather weak [ 41 , 42 ].

Stofan et al. Whole blood sodium concentration as stated by the authors, but in reality this is plasma sodium concentration remained unchanged after training in the control group Those in the cramp-prone group consumed a greater percentage of their total fluid as plain water rather than electrolyte-containing sports drinks although the difference in sodium intake was small and had a higher sweat sodium concentration Jung et al.

had participants perform a fatiguing protocol in the calf muscles to induce EAMCs. Nine participants experienced cramps in the carbohydrate—electrolyte trial, compared with seven in the hypohydration trial.

Of the seven individuals who had EAMC in both trials, time to onset was more than doubled in the carbohydrate—electrolyte trial Subjects who experienced cramps sweated more 2. It is not clear whether there was any treatment order effect in these studies that might have confounded the results this is discussed further below.

Although numerous papers have disputed the findings above, two recent publications seem likely to reopen the debate on the role of disturbances of water and salt balance in the development of muscle cramps.

Ohno et al. In the study by Lau et al. Susceptibility of the calf muscles to electrically-induced cramp was assessed by a threshold frequency TF test applied at baseline before running, immediately after running, and 50 and 80 min after drink ingestion.

Muscle cramp susceptibility assessed by TF did not change from baseline to immediately after running in either condition, but TF decreased after water intake by 4.

The investigators reported that serum sodium and chloride concentrations decreased after water intake but were maintained after ingestion of the electrolyte-containing drink. In accord with the mechanisms proposed by Moss, Haldane and others in the s, these results suggest that the combination of sweat loss and water intake makes muscles more susceptible to electrical simulation-induced muscle cramp, but the susceptibility to muscle cramp decreases when a drink with a high electrolyte content is ingested.

However, the extensive literature on exercise-associated hyponatraemia generally makes no mention of muscle cramping [ 48 ].

While cramp is often associated with large sweat losses during prolonged exercise in the heat, it also occurs in cool environments with little or no sweat loss, suggesting that sweat loss alone and the consequent disturbances of electrolyte balance cannot account for all cramps.

Notwithstanding these observations, there is overwhelming evidence from large-scale industrial settings that cramping occurs more frequently in environments that are hot although not necessarily humid and where sweat losses are high [ 28 , 31 ]. Supporting evidence that disturbances of electrolyte balance may be implicated in muscle cramps can be found in some non-exercise contexts.

For example, the use of low-sodium dialysis fluids during maintenance dialysis may provoke cramping in renal patients [ 49 ], and normalisation of plasma osmolality and sodium concentration by use of the sodium profiling technique can significantly reduce the frequency of cramping during dialysis [ 50 ].

Whether this is relevant to the exercise situation though is uncertain. The idea that the cause of cramp is neurological rather than being related directly to events occurring within the muscle is not a new one. As will be seen below, this is remarkably similar to the proposed mechanism in experimentally-induced muscle cramps.

However, the findings of the Parliamentary enquiry seem to have been largely forgotten, along with much of the older literature.

As evidence accumulated in the s and s that cramp often occurred during exercise in the absence of substantial sweat losses or of gross disturbances in electrolyte balance, an alternative causation was sought. In particular, EAMC was ascribed to an abnormality of sustained alpha motor neuron activity due to an abnormality of alpha motor neuron control at the spinal level, but this still does not identify the cause of this abnormality.

Muscle fatigue was implicated through an excitatory effect on the muscle spindle afferent activity type Ia and II and an inhibitory effect on the type Ib Golgi tendon organ afferent activity Fig. Circumstantial evidence in support of this suggestion arose from the observation that passive stretching of the muscle during an episode of cramp may alleviate the symptoms as a result of an autogenic inhibition by the tendon organ reflex [ 52 ].

However, this still does not explain why cramp is not an inevitable consequence of exercise that causes fatigue, why it appears to occur more frequently in environments that impose high thermal stress, or why some individuals are affected while others are not. Postulated abnormal spinal control of motor neuron function during exercise-associated muscle cramp.

Based on a proposal by Schwellnus et al. CNS central nervous system. The strongest evidence for an altered neuromuscular control is from laboratory studies of small muscles in humans and in animal models. In each of these two different scenarios, a story can be made, but in each case the story is incomplete.

Because EAMC is notoriously unpredictable, laboratory models have been developed where cramp can be induced more reliably, whether by voluntary activation of muscles or by electrically-evoked contractions.

It has been reported that cramping occurs more frequently when the muscle is activated while it is already shortened [ 1 ] although no evidence to support this statement was presented. Various forms of this experimental model have been used in laboratory studies of cramping, even though this may not reflect the movement patterns of athletes.

This is consistent with the proposal of Schwellnus et al. Consistent with this proposal, Khan and Burne [ 26 ] found that cramp induced by voluntary maximal activation of the gastrocnemius while it was held in a shortened position could be inhibited by electrical stimulation of tendon afferents in the cramped muscle.

However, even under conditions that favoured cramping, 5 of their 13 subjects could not induce cramping, and in a further two it did not persist long enough for measurements to be made. Athletes who are prone to muscle cramps are reported to demonstrate a lower threshold for muscle cramps evoked by electrical stimulation of motor nerves [ 53 , 54 ].

Blocking of the motor nerves with anaesthetic does not abolish these electrically evoked cramps, but when the nerve is blocked, a greater stimulation frequency is required to induce cramping and cramp duration is reduced; altered motor unit discharge characteristics are consistent with the existence of a positive feedback loop involving afferent input from affected muscles and motor drive to those muscles [ 55 ].

However, these findings are contradicted by other studies referred to above [ 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. It should be noted that marked hypernatraemia developed as a result of dehydration in the studies of Miller et al.

Fatigue alone is also unlikely to be the cause, although it may be a contributing factor. In marathon runners, cramp tends to occur more frequently towards the end of races [ 3 , 5 ]; however, everyone is fatigued in the later stages of endurance events such as a marathon race, but relatively few experience muscle cramps.

The nature of the fatigue that occurs in sprinters is very different from that experienced towards the end of a marathon race, but cramp may occur in either situation. We are all inevitably influenced by our own experiences and these may bias us towards one cause as being more likely or more common than another, but the key issue is how to treat or prevent an attack.

With regard to treatment and prevention, it is important to note that a plausible mechanism can help to identify effective treatments, but it is not necessary to understand mechanisms to know if a treatment is effective or not.

The early studies of muscle cramping that occurred in industrial settings identified large sweat losses and ingestion of large volumes of plain water as factors contributing to muscle cramping, therefore it is not surprising that ingestion of salt was proposed as a prevention strategy [ 33 , 58 ].

The strongest evidence for the efficacy of this strategy is found in the work of Dill and colleagues [ 32 ], where large-scale prospective studies showed that the addition of salt to drinking water was effective in reducing the rate of cramping.

In support of this, they showed data from a single runner in whom stretching resulted in a dramatic decrease in the electromyographic activity of the affected muscle. They later hypothesised that variants in genes that code for connective tissue components of muscle may influence the susceptibility to EAMC [ 59 ].

To test this hypothesis, they recruited ultraendurance athletes with a recent self-reported history of EAMC, and participants who had never experienced EAMC. However, none of the other related genes showed a differential distribution. More recently, Panza et al.

tested the possible association between acute static stretching of the muscle and prevention of cramping, using an experimental model whereby cramp was induced in the flexor hallucis brevis muscle by electrical stimulation with the muscle held in a shortened position [ 61 ].

In a crossover study, static stretch was compared with a no-stretch condition; the cramp TF increased in both the control and stretching conditions, with no difference between conditions. Miller et al.

subsequently reported similar findings [ 62 ]. There is a long history of the use of folk remedies for the prevention and treatment of muscle cramps, and many of these have included compounds that have a strong or bitter taste, including pickle juice, mustard, quinine, vinegar and various spices and herbs.

Even homeopathic cures are reported to be effective, with anecdotal support from athletes often being used to promote these products, suggesting that both the placebo effect and athlete belief may play a powerful role [ 63 ].

As with other interventions, these have proved difficult to evaluate as muscle cramps generally resolve spontaneously before any intervention can be implemented. However, in the human model of electrically-invoked cramp, pickle juice which has a high salt content and a sharp taste imparted by the acetic acid content was reported to be effective in reducing the duration of cramps.

The same authors had previously shown that ingestion of small volumes of pickle juice had no measurable effect on plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium or calcium concentration, or on plasma osmolality and plasma volume [ 65 ].

The authors proposed that, in the absence of any effect of the ingested pickle juice on circulating electrolyte concentrations, the mechanism by which pickle juice shortened cramp duration involved activation of receptors in the oropharyngeal region that resulted in a reduced firing rate of alpha motor neurons that innervate the affected muscle.

However, it is important to note that this was not a study of EAMC, but of cramping induced by electrical stimulation during maximal voluntary contraction of a small muscle in the sole of the foot that was held in a shortened position; this cannot be taken as evidence of efficacy in the treatment of EAMC.

However, this and the results of other similar studies, raise some interesting questions; crossover designs involve using the same subjects in treatment and placebo trials, usually in the case of a single treatment, with half receiving treatment before placebo and the order reversed in the other half.

The statistical analysis applied in the study by Miller et al. The authors of this and other studies involving similar experimental designs should have reported whether the cramp intensity and cramp duration were different between the first and second exposures, and should perhaps also have habituated the subjects to the electrical stimulation process prior to the experimental trials.

The importance of this is highlighted by a recent publication showing that repeated exposures to electrically-evoked cramps induce a long-lasting increase of the cramp TF in healthy subjects [ 67 ].

These authors induced EAMC in the gastrocnemius medialis of one leg twice a week, while the opposite leg served as the control leg; after four cramp training sessions, the cramp threshold frequency CTF increased in the intervention leg but not in the control leg.

This same consideration of course applies to many other laboratory studies of electrically-evoked cramping, but becomes particularly acute when, as in the study of Miller et al. Quinine has been considered to have a possible role in the prevention of cramps.

There is little research specific to EAMC, but a Cochrane review concluded that ingestion of quinine — mg daily reduces cramp number and cramp days low-quality evidence and reduces cramp intensity moderate-quality evidence , but has no effect on cramp duration [ 68 ].

They reported some evidence that ingestion of theophylline in combination with quinine improved cramps more than quinine alone. They also drew attention to the risks of adverse events associated with quinine use. These conclusions are in general agreement with those of an earlier review [ 13 ].

A recently launched product has claimed that cramp can be prevented or treated by activation of transient receptor potential TRP in the mouth [ 69 ], although this has not been supported by other research [ 70 ].

TRP receptors form a family of 28 related ion channels that are thought to be important for mediating the sensations of taste and pain. The TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are stimulated by the active components of spicy foods such as chilli peppers or wasabi. It may be that evidence will emerge to support the product, but there are some questions about the science.

There is no doubt that unpleasant or pleasant sensations in the mouth will induce electrical activity in some regions of the brain, but there are some gaps in the chain of events between stimulation of oropharyngeal receptors and the inhibition of activity in motor nerves.

Therefore, regular training is the best form of cramp prevention. Without enough practice, the risk of cramp is significantly increased. An exception would be when runners walk, sip water and take on mineral solutions continuously.

As a result, the legs will not be as overworked as they would be when running for the whole duration of a race. Nevertheless, if a cramp does occur, the fastest and most effective way to relieve it is to stretch the affected muscle. Stretching the muscle will stimulate those muscles into preventing contractions, meaning that the cramp will go away.

That being said, if a medical team is close by, they can help to correctly massage the affected muscles with ice or a cooling spray, which is a highly effective form of treatment. The following techniques are a summary of the ways how we can prevent cramps while competing in running races:.

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However, you can change your cookie settings at any time. Cookie Policy. Continue Change cookies settings. Home Health Articles What Are the True Causes of Cramps While Running? Back to Home. What Are the True Causes of Cramps While Running? Phattarapon Atimetin, M. on May 15, Bones and Joints Sports Medicine Running Sports Injury Rehabilitation Exercise Cramp.

Cramps do not result from a body that lacks minerals or hydration. They occur because of over-contraction or overuse of muscles, or lack of muscle strength. Runners who experience cramp while competing tend to have over-trained in the three days prior to the event.

Contrarily, the correct way to prepare is to reduce training load and get plenty of rest before the competition day. When a cramp does occur, the fastest and most effective way you can relieve it is to stretch the affected muscle. That's why this subject is so tricky and complicated.

That is the million maybe billion dollar question…I do not believe there is definitive data or scientific evidence that points to one specific cause over the other. However, in my personal experience, the times I have cramped during a run is when I neglected hydration post-run and experienced cramping a couple hours after.

I, amongst other scientists, believe that some magnesium-to-calcium ratio either too high or too low may have something to do with the occurrence of muscle cramping. I'll touch on this more below. Sorry, but you cannot prevent muscle cramps. It truly is a phenomenon that can occur or go away at any time.

You can, however, use certain nutritional strategies to help decrease the on-set of muscle cramping. Offer valid on ground shipping and only in the continental U. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Not sure which Nuun to get?

Take the Quiz! Winter is here! Learn How to Create Healthy Hydration Habits. Muscle Cramping. How do they occur?

By Terry Zeigler, Sports-realted, ATC. Exercise-induced muscle cramps are painful, debilitating, and can Natural weight loss exercises an athlete Hydration and sports-related cramps sporfs-related the competition. Even when the muscles are immediately cgamps Hydration and sports-related cramps relieve Hydration and sports-related cramps muscle cramping, the cramping often returns as soon as the athlete engages the muscle. According to a recent review of the literature on the causes of muscle cramps during exercise published by the American College of Sports Medicine Bergeron,there appear to be two possible causes for muscle cramping in athletes. Although further research is needed to better understand the underlying physiology of both, the literature provides a basis for understanding the problem and how to prevent muscle cramps from occurring.

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