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Sports psychology and dietary habits

Sports psychology and dietary habits

Althoff, T, Nilforoshan, H, Hua, Sporta, and Leskovec, J. Work and Non-Work Stressors, Psychological Distress and Obesity: Evidence from a Year Study on Canadian Workers. Table 1. Wijk, C.

Sports psychology and dietary habits -

However, amateur athletes are a particularly interesting group who do not always pay attention to choosing the right diet This is because of their approach to sports, which they treat as a hobby rather than a profession.

However, it should be noted that participation in amateur competitions is often associated with a healthy lifestyle, which positively affects physical and mental health This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional behavior of amateur ultrarunners, both men and women.

We examined the relationship between the level of knowledge about nutrition and the choice of specific products, both healthy and unhealthy. Because the human diet depends not only on the level of nutritional knowledge, we also assessed the impact of factors such as gender, smoking, and education on the food choices of ultramarathoners.

We conducted a cross-sectional study. The study covered adult amateur runners, including men and 89 women. Individuals who take up ultrarunning amateurishly or recreationally are often not affiliated with any sports clubs. They work in other fields and run in their free time as a hobby, including ultra distances.

In our research, the distribution by gender is uneven, but other studies of ultrarunners also show a higher percentage of male engagement Pregnant women were not included in the study.

The characteristics of the research group are presented in Table 1. Table 1. The descriptive information for study characteristics and selected characteristics by sex.

The research was conducted in a group of amateur ultrarunners from the beginning of January to the end of March This period included the nationwide lockdown in Poland, where, most of the time, all social meeting points were fully or partially excluded from use.

It also covered the closure of sports clubs and gyms and limited access to outdoor activities. Certainly, during the lockdown, the characteristics of the group in terms of training would have looked different limitations, bans, a general trend of reduced levels of physical activity Therefore runners were asked to evaluate the entire period of experience with ultrarunning.

KomPAN ® Dietary Habits and Nutrition Beliefs Questionnaire and eating habits questionnaires were used for the study. All questions were included in the Supplementary Questionnaire S1.

Participation in the research was voluntary, anonymous, and approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University No. Subjects gave informed consent to participate in the study included in the online questionnaire.

These questionnaires are research tools often used in publications, and for this study, they were converted into online versions and distributed using Google Docs.

Before using the questionnaire, the Google Docs were tested many times to ensure the feasibility of administering the questionnaire on every basic device and web browser. The lack of direct face-to-face interaction may have positively impacted the respondents, thanks to which they had a greater sense of anonymity and thus felt more at ease and did not censor their responses.

The research was conducted asynchronously: the study participants had a lot of time to give answers, and they could do it at any time without time pressure. The questionnaire was available for several weeks to members of the focus groups.

A total of links with the online questionnaire were sent out. In order to obtain valuable data, the moderator and distributor of the questionnaires was a person known in the community with an ultrarunning background.

This eliminated the possibility of sending the questionnaire to random people. In phase 1, which lasted a month, a total of questionnaires were collected. Participants who provided unreliable answers or did not answer the questions comprehensively were removed.

In phase 3, additional exclusion criteria failure to complete questionnaires, return of incomplete questionnaires, non-compliance in verification questions, chronic diseases were introduced 19 , After the entire verification process, respondents were accepted. The process of preparation and selection of study participants is shown in the diagram Figure 1.

The respondents were asked to fill in online questionnaires using Google Docs. It is a platform for online file transfer and collaborative editing. The respondents received a link redirecting them to a relevant online questionnaire in Google Docs. Part of the questions was self-reported, containing basic information about the study participants: marital status, age, gender, height and weight, smoking, socioeconomic status, education level, and place of residence according to city size.

The body mass index BMI was also used in the study. Measurements were not taken using the bioimpedance method due to the limitations of COVID, and body weight and height were self-reported. The self-reported survey also included questions about preferred forms of training, volume, frequency, and duration.

In addition, questions covered training experience, the number of ultra runs, the average number of km run per week, and the longest distance run. The research employed the KomPAN questionnaire developed by the Committee of Human Nutrition Science, Polish Academy of Sciences The KomPAN questionnaire is a reliable, consistent, and authoritative tool for studying dietary beliefs and habits 40 , This has been confirmed by many papers in international journals by Polish and foreign scholars.

The questionnaire was used to determine the dietary habits, diet quality, lifestyle, and nutrition knowledge of ultramarathon runners. Each respondent, on their own, filled in the questionnaire in the form of an online survey consisting of questions divided into four main topics: dietary habits 11 questions , frequency of food consumption 33 questions , nutrition beliefs 25 questions , lifestyle and personal data.

Diet scores were calculated based on daily food consumption. The Healthy Diet Index HDI was calculated as the sum of the frequency of eating healthy food groups included in 10 questions 23, 25, 31—33, 37, 38, 40, 42—43; the total score range: 0—20 points; Supplementary Table S1.

The Unhealthy Diet Index UDI was calculated as the sum of the frequency of eating unhealthy food groups included in 14 questions 22, 24, 26—29, 34—36, 44, 46, 51—52, 54; the total score range: 0—28 points; Supplementary Table S2. Nutrition knowledge was estimated on the basis of 25 questions from Part C of the questionnaire.

Due to the lack of normality of all distributions, it was decided to use non-parametric tests. GraphPad Prism 9 GraphPad Software was used to visualize the data. In the group of women, nutrition knowledge influenced the HDI scores but not the UDI scores Table 2.

Women with insufficient knowledge also obtained lower scores than those with good knowledge, but these differences were not statistically significant. In the case of men, no similar relationships were observed. Smoking cigarettes did not affect the HDI and UDI scores in the group of women Table 3.

In both groups women and men , no significant relationship was found between the level of education and the scores of the studied indices HDI and UDI The results are presented in Table 4.

Women with sufficient and good nutrition knowledge consumed statistically greater amounts of products such as buckwheat, whole-grain pasta, oatmeal, and other coarse grains. Women with insufficient knowledge consumed statistically less of them Figure 2A. Men with good nutrition knowledge consumed statistically more cottage cheese.

Men with sufficient and insufficient nutrition knowledge consumed this product in smaller amounts Figure 2B. Figure 2. A The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the HDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among women. B The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the HDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among men.

Women with sufficient nutritional knowledge consumed statistically more products, such as cold cuts, sausages, or frankfurters, than women with good and insufficient dietary knowledge. Consumption of products from the group of sweetened drinks was found to be statistically significant only in women with sufficient nutritional knowledge.

Women with insufficient nutritional knowledge used alcoholic drinks more often than women with good and sufficient knowledge Figure 3A. Men with insufficient knowledge consumed statistically more sweets compared to men with good and sufficient knowledge.

A similar relationship occurred with alcoholic drinks Figure 3B. Figure 3. A The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the UDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among women. B The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the UDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among men.

In the group of women, no correlation was found between the selected features and the HDI and UDI The results are presented in Table 5.

Table 5. The correlations between selected characteristics and the HDI index or the UDI index. However, the mere desire to do sports does not give people sufficient knowledge about proper and rational nutrition Other factors influence the choice of the right diet.

Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of nutritional knowledge, smoking, and education on the frequency of consuming healthy and unhealthy products. Due to awareness of the influence of gender on food choices, the respondents were divided into two groups: men and women.

The nutritional knowledge of the respondents was measured using the KomPAN questionnaire and categorized as good, sufficient, or insufficient. The analysis of the results showed a relationship between nutritional knowledge and the frequency of meals consumed.

In the case of women, lower knowledge was associated with a lower index corresponding to a healthy diet. In turn, in the case of men, lower knowledge about nutrition was associated with a higher index corresponding to an unhealthy diet.

In both cases, the same trend is noticeable. This is consistent with the results of other studies, according to which people who perform better on a test related to nutrition knowledge are more likely to eat healthy food 44 , On the other hand, some unhealthy products sausages, frankfurters, etc.

were more often chosen by women with sufficient nutritional knowledge compared to women with insufficient knowledge. This may be because the respondents have never been under the care of a dietitian, and their dietary choices may be based on their own beliefs or experience.

Research shows that even some athletes in sports clubs have never had dietary consultations, which may significantly affect the frequency of choosing specific food products Individuals practicing sports are often involuntarily associated with healthy habits, i.

Meanwhile, studies have repeatedly shown that anti-healthy behaviors also often appear in people practicing sports 48 , However, it should be remembered that the vast majority of respondents were smokers, which may significantly affect the results of this study.

However, an interesting observation arises here that amateur ultrarunners are still mostly susceptible to unhealthy addictions, despite practicing sports. The assessment of the relationship between food choices and education was also the subject of this research.

The level of education can affect diet quality, food choices, and the diet itself Among the surveyed group of amateur ultramarathoners, Both among women and men, most of the respondents had higher education.

Despite numerous studies showing that women care more about their diet and food choices 23 , 51 , no statistically significant differences were found between the level of education and the frequency of healthy eating habits in women training ultrarunning in this study. It was similar in the case of men, where there was no correlation between the level of education and the HDI and UDI scores Table 4.

In addition to the quantity and quality of nutritional products consumed, frequency of consumption is also important. This study shows that women with sufficient nutritional knowledge consumed statistically more products such as cold cuts, sausages, or frankfurters than women with good and insufficient nutritional knowledge.

Consumption of sweetened beverages was statistically significant only in women with sufficient nutritional knowledge. Women with insufficient nutritional knowledge used alcoholic beverages more often than women with good and sufficient knowledge Figure 3A.

Men with insufficient knowledge consumed statistically more sweets than men with good and sufficient knowledge. A similar relationship occurred with alcoholic beverages Figure 3B.

On the one hand, the results indicate that individuals with less knowledge about nutrition may more often choose unhealthy products, which is confirmed in the literature However, on the other hand, it should be noted that the vast majority of respondents obtained only sufficient results regarding nutrition knowledge.

This indicates that despite the respondents doing sports and trying to lead a healthy lifestyle, they do not necessarily have adequate nutrition knowledge. In the case of amateurs, nutrition and nutritional knowledge do not necessarily have to be related and correlated with the achievement of specific sports results but rather constitute a mechanism leading to the achievement of generally understood good health, which is confirmed by other studies For example, it would seem that prolonged training and frequent heavy competition should promote unhealthy eating habits in men Table 5.

However, it should be remembered that the research was carried out on a group of amateurs who, despite doing sports, do not necessarily eat healthy food. Amateurs undertaking ultramarathon training and competing for recreation have increased energy expenditure To balance it, they must ensure an adequate supply of energy.

It is unimportant for them to achieve good results in the competition, so they allow themselves to deviate from healthy food. They often exert themselves to a higher level of energy expenditure, which is then covered by unhealthy snacks and other unhealthy products 55 , For professional runners, proper nutrition and diet can affect athletic performance, which is the main goal, in contrast to amateur runners Although ultrarunning training does not promote unhealthy dietary choices, it should be noted that unhealthy dietary choices do occur among amateur runners, as confirmed by the results of our study 55 , However, this research has some limitations, including unequal gender distribution.

As mentioned before, men dominate among ultrarunners 3 , 37 , as confirmed by this study. The study group itself is also not too large, but this may be due to the period in which the study was conducted the beginning of the COVID lockdown in Poland.

People were forced to put their usual hobbies on hold, so they talked less about them on social media In the future, similar studies should take into account a longer period given to complete the questionnaire but also attempt to reach ultrarunners not only online but also through sports clubs.

It would be interesting to check the eating habits of runners during training, and not just between them. SES and food security should also be included in future research to understand these relationships better. This research is a preliminary study; however, despite some limitations, it shows in a fairly extensive way the dependence of dietary choices of amateur ultrarunners on various factors.

Maintaining a healthy diet is especially important for people practicing sports; therefore, nutritional knowledge is at a higher level in people who are more active and have higher education compared to people who are less physically active and have lower education.

Both in the case of women and men, the level of nutrition knowledge was associated with changes in the HDI and UDI scores. Women with sufficient knowledge about nutrition obtained statistically lower HDI scores compared to women with good nutrition knowledge.

However, no similar relationship was found in men. There was also no significant effect of education on food choices and the frequency of consumption of specific products. Interestingly, it was noticed that male smokers had lower UDI scores. Such results may be due to the specifics of the study group, which consisted of amateur ultrarunners, which means that they are not necessarily well-educated in nutrition and positive health behavior.

It was similar in the case of the selection of food products from the healthy and unhealthy categories , where nutrition knowledge did not always correspond with the healthiest choices. For example, regardless of the level of knowledge, men consumed UDI products such as white rice, plain pasta, small groats, yellow cheese, or sweetened drinks with the same frequency.

In turn, regardless of the level of knowledge, women consumed HDI products such as fermented milk drinks, fish, legume seed dishes, or fruit with the same frequency. This may be because, for amateurs practicing sports, diet is not always put in the first place, as the physical activity and the fun that comes from it are much more important.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Bioethics Committee at the Wroclaw Medical University no. AK and MKe contributed to conception and design of the study.

AK organized the database. MKr performed the statistical analysis. AK, MKr, ML, and MKe wrote sections of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. The presented research results, implemented under the topic according to the records in the SIMPLE system with the number SUBZ.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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BMC Med. Knechtle, B, Knechtle, P, Rüst, CA, Rosemann, T, and Lepers, R. Stellingwerff, T. Contemporary nutrition approaches to optimize elite marathon performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform.

Esséen, B. Intramuscular substrate utilization during prolonged exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Burke, LM, Kiens, B, and Ivy, JL. Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports Sci. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Williamson, E. Nutritional implications for ultra-endurance walking and running events.

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J Chin Med Assoc. Baska, RS, Moses, FM, Graeber, G, and Kearney, G. Gastrointestinal bleeding during an ultramarathon. Dig Dis Sci. Stuempfle, KJ, and Hoffman, MD. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a km ultramarathon. Moran, ST, Dziedzic, CE, and Cox, GR.

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Med Sci Sports Exerc. Knechtle, B, Knechtle, P, Wirth, A, Alexander Rüst, C, and Rosemann, T. Hydration: A Key Element of Mental Sharpness Cognitive Function and Hydration : Dehydration can lead to reduced cognitive function, impaired concentration, and decreased alertness.

Proper hydration is essential for mental sharpness. Electrolyte Balance : Maintaining proper electrolyte levels through hydration is crucial for optimal nerve function, which directly impacts mental focus and coordination. Protein for Neurotransmitter Production Amino Acids and Neurotransmitters : Protein sources like lean meats, poultry, fish, dairy, and plant-based options provide the amino acids needed for the production of neurotransmitters that regulate mood and focus.

Caffeine and Alertness Moderation is Key : While caffeine can improve alertness and focus, excessive intake can lead to jitteriness and anxiety.

Use it strategically and in moderation. Timing Matters : Consider the timing of caffeine intake to avoid interfering with sleep quality, which is crucial for mental recovery and performance. Gut Health and the Gut-Brain Connection Probiotic-Rich Foods : A healthy gut microbiome supports overall well-being, including mental health.

Include probiotic-rich foods like yogurt, kefir, and fermented vegetables in your diet. Fiber for Gut Health : High-fiber foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains promote a healthy gut microbiome, which can positively influence mood and cognitive function.

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Dietsry such didtary interest, pyschology career in sports Fat distribution and fertility psycohlogy nutrition Spports be a great way to live habigs passion close at hand. You can counsel an amazing group dieatry people — athletes — who are Lowering blood pressure levels dependent on honing Fat distribution and fertility bodies and excellent dietetic practices to ensure performance. We know that what we eat, how much we eat, and when we eat, can play a major role in our performance and overall wellness. How amazed were we to hear Michael Phelps eat upwards of 10, calories a day when training for the Olympics? By taking a whole-person Mind-Body approach to sports nutrition, you can not only inform the athlete-client of the best diet and exercise methods, but you can also create sustainable nutrition practices to profoundly and positively affect their psychology and their metabolic processes in very positive ways.


How the food you eat affects your brain - Mia Nacamulli On the Monday Sporys a psycholoogy football game, fans Cooling down after workouts the losing team seem to habis up on saturated fats and sugars, whereas supporters of the Sprots team opt for haabits foods, according to new Nutrition periodization for action sports published Wound healing research Psychological Science Habkts, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The researchers hypothesized that, when Fat distribution and fertility favorite team loses, people feel an identity threat and are more likely to use eating as a coping mechanism. To test these associations experimentally, the researchers asked a group of French participants to write about a time when their favorite team lost or won. In a later, seemingly unrelated task, the people who wrote about their team losing opted to eat chips and candy over healthier grapes and tomatoes. The group who wrote about winning, on the other hand, preferred the healthier options. APS regularly opens certain online articles for discussion on our website. Effective Februaryyou must be a logged-in APS member to post comments. Sports psychology and dietary habits

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